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Audience

Audience

By the Project for Excellence in Journalism

In 2007, five key trends stood out regarding the audience for the three commercial broadcast networks with newscasts, ABC, CBS and NBC.

• The total number of evening news viewers fell once again, and the rate of decline accelerated in 2007. As a new generation of anchors has failed to attract more viewers, it may be that the three nightly newscasts are now left to compete for a shrinking pool of viewers.

• For much of the year, ABC’s World News With Charles Gibson increased its audience and overtook the NBC Evening News with Brian Williams for the top position in nightly news, although by year’s end, after some retooling, NBC was again on top. CBS, meanwhile, fell farther behind, dropping by double digits for the year.

• The audience for the morning news shows fell for the third year in a row, dropping 2% year-to-year. The total audience for the morning news shows is now at its lowest point since 1999.

• Of the three morning programs, Good Morning America experienced the smallest drop and narrowed the difference between it and the long-time leader, the Today Show, to half a million viewers.

Nightly Newscasts

In 2007, the first full year of new anchors, the steady decline in audience accelerated rather than ebbed.1 When the three networks were taken together, all three measurements of audience saw declines over a year earlier and, in two, the declines were steeper than in the past.

According to data from Nielsen Media Research, the networks averaged 23.1 million viewers a night, a drop of 5%, or 1.2 million viewers compared with data from 2006.2

Evening News Viewership, 2006 vs. 2007
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Nielsen Media Research, used under license

Over the past 25 years, the audience has fallen around 1 million per year, making the decline somewhat steeper in 2007.

Ratings, which measure the number of television sets in a market tuned to a particular program, was 8.1 for the three networks in 2007. This was a drop of 6% compared to 2006, according to Nielsen data.

The third measuring stick for audience is share, or the percentage of television sets in use tuned to a particular program. In 2007, the share for the three newscasts was 30, identical to the 2006 average, according to data from Nielsen.

After years in which an unchanging cast of anchors saw their numbers gradually fall, everyone in network news wondered whether a generational change might attract new audiences. The past year, 2007, was the first in which that new generation was in place for an entire 12 months.

One of those newscasts, the CBS Evening News with Katie Couric, also made significant efforts initially to change and in some ways lighten the content in a way that was designed to distinguish it and appeal to new audiences. That failed to happen.

It appears, for now at least, that the structural problems facing network evening news may have more to do with competing technologies and the limitations of a dinner-hour timeslot than the personalities of the anchors.

To get a sense of the extent of decline over time, consider 1980, the year that CNN began, and U.S News & World Report asked “Is TV News Growing Too Powerful?” That year, ratings for network news were 37, with a share of 75.3 Since then, as of November 2007, ratings have fallen 54% and share 56%.

Much of that has occurred in the last decade. Since 1997, ratings have dropped 34% and share 33%, November to November, according to Nielsen data.

(For a more detailed discussion of the reasons for network’s long audience decline, see the 2004 State of the News Media Report.)

Evening News Ratings, 2006 vs. 2007
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Nielsen Media Research, used under license
Evening News Share, 2006 vs. 2007
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Nielsen Media Research, used under license

In many ways, this decline in network news viewership reflects not so much a reaction to news as it shows a structural slide in the audience for the networks themselves. The audience for everything the networks offer — sports, soap operas, prime-time entertainment, etc. — have all suffered long-term declines, a process that began in the 1980s with more choices on the dial. That decline continued in 2007 as well. According to data from Nielsen Media Research, the combined prime-time television audience at the four broadcast networks — CBS, ABC, NBC and Fox — fell 7 percent in 2007 compared with the same time period in 2006.4

Viewers are also increasingly recording television programs and watching them at their own convenience, often several days after a show first aired. According to 2007 research conducted by the Leichtman Group, a research and consulting firm, 20% of U.S. households have DVRs, up from 8% in 2005.5

With that comes an argument that Nielsen is missing a new, important segment of the audience. In response, Nielsen has made changes over the past two years to update its methodology to more accurately reflect television’s viewing audience.6

In January 2006, Nielsen introduced its first ratings data that combined live viewing with those who had watched a recorded version of the show within seven days after it first aired. By March 2006, the data showed that the new rating system elevated the audience for most of the 25 most popular shows, with some receiving as much as a 4% increase in total audience.

Then, in September 2007, Nielsen announced plans to triple the size of its household sample to better estimate television viewing behavior. By 2011, Nielsen plans to sample 37,000 homes, up from 12,000 in 2007.

“Increasing the size of the sample audience is really important to measure the audience with the precision that our clients want and need,” said Sara Erichson, Nielsen executive vice president for client services.7

Despite these methodological adjustments, advertisers are increasingly relying on data that count how many people are watching the commercials aired during a program rather than the number watching the television program.

In the end, if the problems of network news can be mostly attributed to the decline in the overall audience of broadcast network television generally rather than something having to do with the newscasts in particular, then the survival of the networks’ news divisions in some ways may well depend on their liberating themselves from the broadcast television platform on which they were founded — and even perhaps from the networks themselves. If ABC News, CBS News and NBC News are to survive, it may be as video newsgathering organizations whose products are available on demand on many platforms, only one of which is broadcast television. And the measure of their potential for that future, as is true for other media, may be in their total audience across multiple platforms — from Web sites to podcasts, to viral online distribution to mobile networks.

Nightly News Audience Demographics

Another challenge for the evening network newscasts is attracting not only more viewers, but younger ones especially. In 2007, the audience appeared to grow older.

The median age of nightly news viewers was 61 years, according to data provided by Magna Global USA, a media services firm. That figure is up from the past few years, when it was roughly 60 years of age. There were virtually no differences across the three networks.

Younger viewers are important to the network news programs because marketers generally pay higher ad rates for them, specifically those in the 25-to-54 demographic.

As the age for audience for network news television programs has hovered around 60 over the past several years, there is evidence that the networks’ Web sites may be attracting a younger audience. For instance, the median age for CBSNews.com was 49.3 in the winter of 2008, according to data from Nielsen Online.8

Median Age of Nightly News Viewers
2002, 2004-2007
Design Your Own Chart
Source: MagnaGlobal USA

The Race Among the Networks

The evidence, heading into 2008, suggested that the competition among networks during the evening is for share of the existing pool of older viewers, with the only change being in how it is divided up.

Even then, the stakes can be significant.

According to network sales executives, each 0.1 rating point — or roughly 100,000 viewers — a newscast drops can translate into a loss of anywhere from $5 million to $6 million in revenue annually, the New York Times reported in May 2007.9

In that contest, ABC appears to be gaining, with NBC and, to a greater extent, CBS losing.

Over all, the average audience for ABC’s World News Tonight with Charles Gibson in 2007 was 8.38 million viewers. That represented a gain of roughly 300,000 viewers over the year before, some 3.8%.

It also, as an annual average, put ABC 88,000 viewers ahead of the NBC Nightly News.

NBC averaged 8.29 million a night, according to data provided to us by Nielsen Media Research, a drop of 5.7%, or 500,000 viewers, from the year before.

By the end of 2007, however, NBC was narrowly on top again, with 9.1 million viewers a night in November and 9.3 million in December.

CBS, amid all the fanfare and controversy surrounding Couric, remained a more distant third, with an average nightly viewership of 6.43 million viewers. With that average, CBS fell 13.4% year to year, or 996,000 viewers.

When measured in ratings, ABC and NBC tied at 2.9, and CBS was 2.3, according to Nielsen’s 2007 data.

And in share, or the percentage of viewers watching news on television during the half-hour, ABC and NBC were at 11 for the year, and CBS 8.

To put this into perspective, NBC began the year with a 560,000-viewer lead over ABC. It soon fell into second place and trailed ABC much of the year. But by November, it was back on top.

But the story of the year in nightly news cannot be told entirely in the final numbers. There is actually something of a horse-race narrative here.

Early in February, ABC’s World News surpassed NBC News for the top spot, attracting an average of 9.7 million viewers a night, edging out NBC’s 9.6 million. Its claim of the top spot for the week of February 5 marked the first time since August 2005 — the week after Peter Jennings died — that ABC led, according to data from Nielsen Media Research.10

ABC held onto the top spot for the next eight months, until relinquishing it in November. At year’s end, ABC averaged 8.9 million viewers and NBC attracted 9.3 million, according to December data from Nielsen.

For NBC, which had been at the top for 26 months (December 2004 through January 2007), second place was an unusual position. When asked about its fall from first place, NBC anchor Williams seemed unfazed: “It is predictable. This is why I haven’t allowed any champagne toasts in the newsroom when the ratings have been flawless and spectacular and joyous. This is a back-and-forth dogfight.”11

But in early March, NBC News reassigned its executive producer, John Reiss, and promoted Alexandra Wallace to the executive producer role, making her the first woman in a decade to head an evening newscast. Wallace had been the news division’s vice president, and before the announcement there had been reports of disagreement between Williams and Reiss, the Associated Press reported in March.12

What accounts for the increasing competition between NBC and ABC?

According to Andrew Tyndall, a network television analyst and contributor to this report, the reason the gap between NBC and ABC had narrowed was more likely because of Gibson’s performance as anchor than anything NBC had done or not done. The veteran Gibson, said Tyndall, had brought much-needed stability to the network, which, after Jennings’ death, experimented with dual anchors until early 2006, when one of those anchors, Bob Woodruff, was wounded in Iraq.13

Other experts point out the importance of the audience from the lead-in program. If the program that precedes the evening newscast, such as Oprah, attracts a large audience, this may ultimately boost the number of viewers who watch the news on the same network.

Meanwhile, it was another rocky year for the CBS Evening News and its host, Katie Couric. Heading into 2007, CBS had lost 26% of its audience since her debut in September 2006. Although there was further erosion in 2007, the rate of decline of 13% for the year represented a slowing of the loss, according to Nielsen’s figures. While that was happening, CBS was also retooling Couric’s newscast, changing its content and some of the personnel, including those behind the scenes.

First, the network scrapped the initial incarnation of Couric’s newscast that involved fairly noticeable differences from the traditional newscasts. That effort began in earnest when CBS News replaced Couric’s first executive producer, Rome Hartman, with Rick Kaplan, the well-traveled producer who had 35 years of news experience with ABC, CNN, MSNBC and CBS.

Kaplan’s mission, according to the New York Times, was to bring more consistency to the CBS newscast. “When people tune into CBS News I want them to know what they’re going to get,” he said.14 Privately, CBS insiders say, the intention was to make the newscast more hard-news oriented, which would also make it more like a traditional nightly newscast.

Publicly, Couric conceded that a return to more traditional news was necessary. “The biggest mistake we made is we tried new things,” she told New York Magazine.15

But underneath the public statements there were murmurings of discontent.

In April 2007, in a much-discussed article, television news correspondent Gail Shister reported in the Philadelphia Inquirer that Couric might leave CBS after the 2008 presidential elections to take on another position at the network.16

The report was denied. In May, Sean McManus, president of CBS News, offered this response: “Three years, four years, five years; that is the time frame that I think, realistically, you need to evaluate where the broadcast is and where CBS News is.”17

The news wasn’t all grim for CBS. Couric continued to attract women to the newscast. Through the first quarter of 2007, the Evening News was up 6% among women 18 to 49, according to the Chicago Tribune.18 And in the first week of 2008, the newscast was tied for first among women 18 to 49, Media Life magazine reported.19

How much does all that behind-the-scenes maneuvering matter? Do viewers notice the changes in content, or do they just react to the personality of the anchor?

It is impossible to say for sure, but there is some evidence to examine. First, as noted in the content section above, at least when it came to the topics covered, there were only negligible differences among the three nightly newscasts for most of 2007.

Thus, any differences among the networks that viewers are detecting may not be in what was covered. They therefore must be in how — the quality of the correspondent packages — or in the affect and manner of the anchor who links the stories and the program together.

Which is it? Again it is hard to say. What is certainly the case is that the most obvious difference among the networks is the face that fronts the broadcast. Even if people subtly sense more value in the way stories are done on one network over another, they may not be able to articulate it. According to a June 2007 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, 74% of Americans said the three evening newscasts were “pretty much the same.” 20

But the changes of 2007 and the horse race that now exists for the top spot make something clearer than before. Changing the content of the programs, switching anchors and spending more on promotion all have failed to expand the pool of nightly news viewers. The three newscasts are now probably looking at a permanent future of fighting for a shrinking pool of viewers at the dinner hour over broadcast television. To expand that audience, the networks may have to define themselves as something more than network TV broadcasters.

PBS

At PBS, the audience for the NewsHour With Jim Lehrer continued to show somewhat more stability than the commercial networks, but also some weakness.21

The NewsHour, an hour-long broadcast that began in 1983 and now seen each weekday on more than 300 PBS stations, attracted approximately 2.2 million viewers a night during the 2006-07 season, according to data from the NewsHour research department. That number remains unchanged from the previous season.

But the program’s cumulative audience — the number of different people who watched across the course of a week — fell slightly during this time, from 6.3 million to 6.1 million each week.22

What accounted for the drop? According to Beth Walsh, director of PBS research, there are two factors that influence the audience for the NewsHour.

First, like all media, PBS has felt competition from alternative sources of news, particularly cable.

Second, she said, the fortunes of the NewsHour are also tied to non-news programming. “Many of our programs have been down just a bit and our prime-time average has been sliding,” Walsh said. “In general, when PBS has a few ‘hits’ on the schedule, it raises everything, and when we have ‘status quo’ programming, we tend to slide.”

PBS expected that the 2007-08 season would be a better one for the NewsHour, thanks to the Ken Burns’ documentary “The War,” the most-watched PBS series in 10 years, which aired in the fall of 2007, but will be counted in the upcoming year’s audience figures. The documentary, along with political coverage of the 2008 presidential election, should attract more viewers to regular programming.23

Morning News

For the third consecutive year, the total viewership for the morning shows news declined.

And with that, a smaller network news audience in the morning now appears to be a trend.

It may be that the challenges for the morning shows are now similar to what they are for their counterparts in the evening: shifting work patterns and more competition from the Internet and cable television.

In 2007, total morning viewership averaged 12.7 million, down 4% from 2006, according to data from Nielsen Media Research.

Ratings were 4.5 in 2007, down 4% from the year before, and share stood at 33, down 3% year-to-year.

The audience leader in 2007 was NBC’s Today Show, which finished first for the 11th consecutive year. Although the show remained comfortably ahead of second-place ABC’s Good Morning America, the difference between the two narrowed in 2007.

For the year, the Today Show averaged 5.38 million viewers each morning, down 6.9% or some 397,000 viewers from 2006, according to data from Nielsen Media Research.24 Using November to November data, often cited by the networks, this was the fourth consecutive year of decline.

The Today Show averaged ratings of 1.9 and a 14-point share for the year. Compared with 2006, ratings were down 10% and share fell seven percent.

Good Morning America also lost viewers in 2007, but considerably fewer of them. For the year, it averaged 4.77 million viewers, down 1.5%, or about 74,000, from 2006.25 Ratings averaged 1.7, the same as 2006. And share was 12, unchanged from the year before.

In third, perennially, was CBS’ Early Show, which averaged 2.5 million viewers each morning, according to data from Nielsen.26 This average was virtually the same as it was in 2006. Ratings were 0.9 and share, at 7, were both unchanged.

Morning News Viewership, 2006 vs. 2007
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Nielsen Media Research, used under license

But the implications of smaller morning news audiences may concern network executives more than a decline in evening news viewership. Morning news shows have long been network news’ cash cows, with as much as three times the ad revenue generated from evening news programming, given the greater number of hours of programming. If that franchise, which over all had held somewhat steady, begins a gradual erosion, the effect on network news economics could be significant.

Morning News Ratings by Network, 2006 vs. 2007
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Nielsen Media Research, used under license
Morning News Share, 2006 vs. 2007
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Nielsen Media Research, used under license

Morning News Demographics

For now, the median age for the morning news shows remains younger than what it is in the evening. But for two of the three morning newscasts, the median age climbed a bit in 2007.

According to data from Magna Global USA, CBS’s Early Show got younger in 2007, attracting viewers with a median age of 52.8 years. The audience for NBC’s Today Show got slightly older (53.4) while ABC’s Good Morning America remained the oldest, at 55.3.

Median Age of Morning News Viewers
2003-2007
Design Your Own Chart
Source: MagnaGlobal USA

Morning Show Personnel

There were a fair amount of personnel and programming changes at the morning shows in 2007, as well as in the evening, some of which may have a bearing on audience trends.

September 2007 marked the one-year anniversary of co-anchor Meredith Vieira’s tenure on the Today Show. During Viera’s first year, the show never lost a week to its rival, Good Morning America. But according to data from Nielsen Media Research, the Today Show lost 360,000 viewers (or 6.2%) on the average weekday since Viera, who co-hosts with Matt Lauer, joined the program. What is more, the show was down 12% among women 25 to 54, a demographic group much prized by advertisers.27

It was also at this time that the Today Show added a fourth hour of programming in the fall season. The fourth hour, however, is not hosted by Viera or Lauer but rather by Ann Curry, Natalie Morales and Hoda Kotb.

The move was regarded as somewhat of a risk for NBC. In 1999, the network sought to expand programming to three hours with Later Today, but before long the show was canceled. And though it generated higher ratings after it added a third hour once again in 2000, the show’s audience reportedly drops off significantly after the first two hours.28

There was also concern from NBC’s local affiliates, which were hesitant to surrender air time that had been allocated for syndicated programming. The network, however, convinced its affiliates there would be ample opportunities for local news and, by mid- 2007, 90% of the affiliates had made room for all of the Today Show.29

For ABC, Good Morning America saw the first full year with co-hosts Robin Roberts and Diane Sawyer at the helm, after longtime host Charles Gibson left the show to anchor ABC’s World News in June 2006.

The show did endure several challenges in 2007. In late July, Roberts announced she had been diagnosed with breast cancer and would have surgery in early August. Roberts returned to the show just 10 days after her surgery.30 In mid-January 2008, Roberts finished chemotherapy, some of which was videotaped for the ABC News Web site.31

Earlier in the year, Good Morning America also lost its longtime film critic, Joel Siegel, to cancer. Siegel, who died in June, had been with the show since 1981.32

At third-place CBS, things were much less stable in 2007 and early 2008.

In late 2006, the Early Show, which uses a four-anchor format, saw the departure of host René Syler, who had been with the broadcast since October 2002. In late November 2007, another anchor, Hannah Storm, was reassigned.33

There was also a major change off-camera. In September 2007, CBS named Shelley Ross the show’s senior executive producer. Ross had been with Good Morning America from 1999 to 2004, and had been credited with raising that show’s ratings.34 She is one of several veterans of ABC who have been recruited by CBS News’ president, Sean McManus, and in particular under his executive vice president, Paul Friedman, the former No. 2 at ABC News.

These developments did not come to as a surprise to many since McManus had told reporters in late 2006 that he would focus on improving the morning newscast ratings after re-launching the CBS Evening News With Katie Couric, who made her debut in the fall of that year.35

Perhaps the biggest change came in early 2008 when CBS made the first hour of the Early Show available to all of its affiliates. Before then, 43 CBS affiliates, whose broadcasts reach about 20% of the country, had aired local news for most of the 7.a.m. hour.

“Having a fully distributed national broadcast will finally put us on a level playing field with the other two networks,” McManus told the New York Times. “[But] we are not expecting any immediate or dramatic ratings increases. Slow and steady growth is the goal.” 36

The Sunday Shows

The Sunday morning talk shows have historically drawn small but highly desirable audiences. Those viewers are attractive to advertisers because they are one of the most upscale.

In 2007, NBC’s Meet the Press continued to attract the most viewers, averaging 3.5 million per week for the year, according to data from Nielsen Media Research. That is 34% more than second-place Face the Nation, which airs on CBS and averaged 2.62 million. Just 25,000 viewers behind CBS was ABC’s This Week (2.59 million). And in fourth place was Fox News Sunday, with an average of 1.3 million each week. In comparison with 2006, NBC and CBS were down 8% and 7% respectively, ABC was up 4%, and Fox remained the same.

The 2007 season was its 60th for Meet the Press, and the program finished in the top slot for the 10th consecutive year. What accounts for the show’s perennial dominance? According to one analyst, the show’s success may lie in its ability to attract the most star power. In 2007, for instance, 12 presidential candidates sat for interviews as part of the show’s “Meet the Candidate” series. “It’s strong because they get the big interviews,” said Sheree Johnson, senior vice president and director of media services for Nicholson Kovac, a marketing communications agency. “Anything that’s happening in the news that week, they come up with the big player, the big guns. They get them first, and they do a nice job of promoting that. The C-level in particular are watching.” 37

Of course, to some degree this is a self-perpetuating advantage. The program first in ratings can tend to get the most sought-after guests.

Footnotes

1. All audience data are from Nielsen Media Research. The data analyzed are P2+ data, which consider individuals over the age of 2.

2. Alvin P. Sanoff, U.S. News & World Report, June 9, 1980.

3. Alvin P. Sanoff, U.S. News & World Report, June 9, 1980.

4. David Bauder, “Data Says 2.5 Million Less Watching TV,” Associated Press, May 8, 2007.

5. Despite this growth, Leichtman estimated that 95% of television viewing was still live. Linda Moss, “DVRs Nested in One-in-Five Homes, Survey Says,” Multichannel News, August 21, 2007.

6. David Goetzi, “DVR Data Begins to Have Impact, Top Shows Get a Boost,” Media Daily News, March 1, 2006.

7. Meg James, “Nielsen to expand its TV sample,” Los Angeles Times, September 27, 2007.

8. Nielsen Online @plan, Winter 2007/2008, courtesy of the CBS Corp.

9. Bill Carter, “Is It the Woman Thing, or Is It Katie Couric?” the New York Times, May 14, 2007.

10. Jacques Steinberg, “Charles Gibson’s ‘World News’ Gets Rare Ratings Victory,” the New York Times, February 14, 2007.

11. David Bauder, “2nd place a new world for Brian Williams,” Associated Press, June 24, 2007.

12. “NBC newscast gets new top producer,” March 5, 2007.

13. David Bauder, “2nd place a new world for Brian Williams,” Associated Press, June 24, 2007.

14. Bill Carter, “CBS Producer Goes Around, Comes Around,” the New York Times, March 9, 2007.

15. Joe Hagan, “Alas, Poor Couric,” New York, July 12, 2007.

16. Gail Shister, “CBS evening blues,” the Philadelphia Inquirer, April 23, 2007.

17. Bill Carter, “Is It the Woman Thing, or Is It Katie Couric?” the New York Times, May 14, 2007.

18. Phil Rosenthal, “Couric feeling more at ease,” the Chicago Tribune, April 22, 2007.

19. Toni Fitzgerald, “These days, it’s Sundays with George,” Media Life, January 10, 2008.

20. That number was much lower for the three cable news networks — Fox, CNN, and MSNBC — with only 40% agreeing they were pretty much the same. “Why Change the Channel?” Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, June 20, 2007.

21. According to the NewsHour Web site: “The NewsHour grew out of the half-hour MacNeil/Lehrer Report, which, from 1975-1983, garnered critical praise and numerous awards for in-depth coverage of a different single issue in each broadcast. The program was transformed into the MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour in 1983. It made history as the first hour-long broadcast of national nightly news and was recognized with Emmys, Peabodys and other honors. In October 1995, the program began its newest incarnation as the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer.”

22. The weekly cumulative audience is an unduplicated count of everyone who saw six minutes or more on PBS that week, though those minutes do not have to be six consecutive minutes. The key distinction is that cumulative measures the number of total unique viewers. This is distinct from advertising impressions, which are gross numbers that include duplication.

23. According to a PBS press release, 37.8 million people tuned it to watch all or part of the series, which concerned World War II. It also attracted nearly one million visitors to the PBS Web site. “Ken Burns’ and Lynn Novick’s ‘The War’ was the most-watched series in last 10 years on PBS,” PBS press release, November 20, 2007.

24. Nielsen data for the Today Show refers to the following time period: 7 AM and ending at various times.

25. Nielsen data for Good Morning America refers to the following time period: 7 AM and ending at 8:25 AM

26. Nielsen data for the Early Show refers to the following time period: 7:47 AM and ending at 8:25 AM

27. Jacques Steinberg, “A ‘Today’ at a Time, Until Finally She Has a Year,” the New York Times, September 11, 2007.

28. Peter Johnson, “NBC to Take ‘Today” into a fourth hour this fall,” USA Today, January 16, 2007.

29. Paul J. Gough, “A longer ‘Today’ gets many OKs,” the Hollywood Reporter, April 12, 2007.

30. “Robin Roberts to Begin Chemo Thursday,” Associated Press, September 20, 2007.

31. “Robin Roberts’ Final Day of Chemotherapy,” ABCNews.com, January 16, 2008

32. Edward Watt, “Joel Siegel, 63, Movie Critic Who Instructed and Amused, Dies,” the New York Times, June 30, 2007.

33. Heading into 2008, The Early Show’s four anchors were: Harry Smith, Julie Chen, Dave Price and Russ Mitchell. Jacques Steinberg, “An Early Show Exit,” the New York Times, November 29, 2007.

34. Brian Stetler, “CBS Early Show Tries a Revised Format, Again,” the New York Times, January 7, 2008.

35. Anne Becker, “René Syler to Leave CBS’ Early Show,” Broadcasting & Cable, December 4, 2006.

36. Brian Stetler, “CBS ‘Early Show’ Tries a Revised Format, Again,” the New York Times, January 7, 2008.

37. “C Level” is industry jargon referring to top management such as CEOs, CFOs or other “chief” executives. Mary Ellen Podmolik, “No. 6 Meet the Press,” BtoB: The Magazine for Marketing Strategists, May 7, 2007.