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Asian American

Asian American Media

By the Project for Excellence in Journalism

Overview

Asian Americans comprise a variety of small and fractured markets. But their affluence theoretically makes many of those markets tempting.  Various media outlets, based in the United States or abroad, have tried to tap into this potential, with mixed success.

In 2008, Asian media saw success in some quarters — particularly large papers and online —and trouble elsewhere, especially some smaller papers and in television. However, toward the end of the year, Asian American media suffered a big setback as one of its largest and most successful weekly newspapers, Asian Week was forced to fold in the midst of the recession. As in most media, the forecast heading into 2009 looked more difficult for everyone.

Among the winners, several leading newspapers saw circulation stability or growth during the year, in contrast with most mainstream newspapers.

Some think an element of that success has been to appeal to Asian Americans not through their native languages but through their newer shared one: English.

Some smaller Asian American newspapers had a harder time in 2008, however, suffering declines in ad revenue as a result of the recession, especially those in California, where a severe housing slump has eaten into real estate advertising revenue.

And in a sign of a maturing industry, a number of publishers have formed an association to promote their common interests.

On the television side, meanwhile, the picture was less positive. New Tang Dynasty, a New York-based nonprofit that described itself as the only independent television station broadcasting into China, found itself effectively blocked from that country in a dispute with the Chinese authorities. And the cable giant Comcast  closed AZN Television, which had been promoted as a “network for Asian America.”

Demographics

Asian Americans represent, by percentage, the fastest growing ethnicity in the country.. Though they remain relatively small in numbers, Asian Americans households are disproportionately wealthy, making them a lucrative target for publishers and broadcasters.

Nearly 16 million Americans, or just over 5% of the U.S. population, identify themselves as Asian American or Asian Pacific Islander.1 By 2050, the figure is expected to increase to 9%.2

One in three Asian Americans have a household income that exceeds $100,000 (36%), compared with 25% of American households as a whole.3 Asians are also more likely than other groups to make expensive purchases like new cars and designer clothing, according to a Packaged Facts report.4

Their buying power, too, is among the fastest growing of any demographic group. Asian- Americans are estimated to have $254 billion in annual buying power.5 Between 1990 and 2007, Asian buying power had increased 294%. Only Hispanics, at 307%, grew faster, according to Jeffrey Humphreys of the Selig Center for Economic Growth at the University of Georgia.6

Asian American Median Income vs. Other Races/Ethnicities 2007
Design Your Own Chart

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Despite the growth and relative wealth of Asians, Asian American media continues to face challenges reaching this audience and attracting advertisers, for a variety of reasons.

One is the population is exceptionally diverse in nationality and speaks a host of languages (unlike the Hispanic market). The Magazine Publishers of America reported that 90% of Asian Americans come from six countries: China, India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Korea and Japan. The largest populations are Chinese and Filipino.7

The closest the market comes to a common language may very well be English. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 80% of Asian Americans report that they “speak English very well” and one fifth (21%) say they speak only English.8

There are conflicting views on whether Asian Americans’ high rates of fluency in English helps or hurts Asian American media.

On the one hand, if Asian Americans can get their news from mainstream media in English, they may see less reason to turn to Asian-oriented news outlets.  Fully 78% say they consume both ethnic and English-language media, and only 12% say they consume only media in their native language.9

On the other hand, others say Asian media remain attractive because those outlets provide cultural news and information unavailable in traditional general market outlets. And English, they note, can be a good tool for reaching a linguistically diverse population.

The result is that some Asian media outlets are trying to create a bi-cultural Asian American media. The content here speaks to the Asian cultural heritage of readers, has an international focus and relates to the audience’s Americanism at the same time.

Good examples of this are in the Filipino and South Asian communities. “It is not uncommon to find that the most effective ads addressing Filipino and South Asian consumers are in a hybrid form of their language and English, such as Tagalog (Filipino) and English, which is affectively known as Taglish,” Bill Imada of the IW Group, a leading Asian American ad agency, wrote on his Advertising Age blog.10

But Asian American media outlets are still trying convince advertisers of the market’s strength.  These advertisers, professionals say, often still hesitate to invest in ethnic media, especially in English, because they feel they can reach the market through mainstream publications and because the Asian market, relatively, is small.

“Advertisers have to realize that advertising in ethnic media should not be a one-time thing or a diversity initiative,” said Leslie Yngojo-Bowes of USAsian Wire, an online service that distributes press releases to Asian-American media outlets.11

Print

Success in the Asian press in 2008 seemed to depend, in part at least, on where the paper was based and what language it used.

Some of the larger in-language newspapers serving the American market were based not in the United States but in Asian countries that were not as badly affected by the sharp decline of the American economy. Others, especially those based in California, where the bursting housing bubble was felt most severely, were forced to cut back.

The National Association of Asian Publishers was formed at a March 2008 conference of the Newspaper Association of America.

The new association’s co-founder Leslie Yngojo-Bowes, president of USAsian Wire, said the group’s establishment “dovetails … with the continuing expansion of Asian American media.”12 The group said its mission was to “reach out to over 400 identified Asian print, electronic and online publishers throughout the United States” and focus on “market research, matching circulation verification and analysis with the needs of advertisers, and developing new leaders in the field of Asian Pacific American publishing.”13

Some publications attempted, with mixed success, to participate in audits for the first time. During the first quarter of 2008, Verified Audit Circulation, an organization that verifies circulation  figures, saw an uptick in Asian publications seeking to get audited, according to Josh Luck, field verification manager for the organization. But by the third quarter, he said, the number had dropped off as the economy worsened.14

One of those papers that succeeded was Balita, a Southern California paper for the Filipino community that subscribed to Verified Audit Circulation. The first audit is expected to be released in mid-2009.

The executive editor,  Amee Enriquez, told Verified Audit Circulation, “We wanted to add more credibility to our newspaper. What a better way to do so than joining the ranks of other reputable news organizations that underwent the same process?”15

Raju Kotak, founder of WowNow.com, a social networking portal for South Asians, said the lack of audits, which are necessary to build advertiser confidence and relationships, had  hurt Asian American publications.16

Two Asian American newspapers demonstrated the value of an English-only strategy, at least until the economy turned down, causing one of them to fold.  With so many Asian languages in the market and a high rate of English fluency among Asians, English content has the potential for a much broader overall audience.  The challenge there is to cover all the various ethnic interests.

Pan-Asian Media

One strategy, aimed at enlarging the market power of Asian American media, has been to create a pan-Asian publication published in English, the one common language of U.S. Asians. AsianWeek, which called itself “the only English-language newsweekly for Asian Pacific Americans,” was the model here.

But early in 2009, the paper published its last print edition, citing the economy as the reason for its closing. “There are fewer major newspapers, fewer newspaper readers and fewer newspaper advertisers than ever before,” Ted Fang, the editor, and James Fang, the  publisher, said in a letter published in the newspaper. The paper said it would continue to publish online, but Ted Fang said that all staff had been laid off. The focus of AsianWeek, Fang said, would shift to doing more “community work.”17

The loss of the paper raised concerns among the Asian American community of an increasing gap in coverage of Asian Americans in the mainstream media that traditionally has been filled by the ethnic media but is now especially vulnerable due to the recession.

Before its closing in January 2009, the paper says it had success for 30 years.  Since its establishment in 1979, it had served as an important model for the Asian American ethnic media industry.

Before it stopped printing, the English-language publication’s San Francisco and national editions average circulation had totaled 58,882. This is the latest circulation information available for 2008 (July-September 2008) before the paper stopped printing.18

It boasted a readership with demographics that would be the envy of any publisher: 44% of its readers reported annual incomes in excess of $100,000, 38% owned a business, 60% owned their own homes and 77% held  a college degree. Among its advertisers were some of the best known retailers, such as Macy’s, Nordstrom, Best Buy and Home Depot.

Fang was optimistic even going into the last quarter of 2008. “If there is a sweet spot in this recessionary economy, it is in the Asian Market. … As long as Asian market media can demonstrate verifiable and targeted readership, we can bring results to advertisers and continue to survive and grow,” he said.19

In the end, however, the paper was not immune to the recession. Nikki Cranor, AsianWeek’s associate publisher, told PEJ that there was a general slowdown in attracting long-term contracts toward the end of 2008 and that small-business advertising had been slowing down for some time.20

Ethnic-Specific Papers

Other publications report success targeting readers by nationality, often doing so in the native language of their audience, although in many cases their circulation figures are not audited.

One paper, the Epoch Times, has taken the native-language strategy to an extreme by trying to expand into a chain empire. Epoch Times says the approach is having success, although its circulation is not audited. The paper began in 2000 as a Chinese-language paper in New York City and has since added offices around the world and editions in nine other languages. Its website is available in a 17 languages, including English.21

The weekly says it has a national circulation of 100,000 and a worldwide circulation of more than 1 million.22 The New York Times has reported the paper’s connection with the Falun Gong spiritual movement that has been banned in China, although the paper denies any formal affiliation with the group.23

Chinese

Among the biggest non-English Asian American media outlets are those that publish in Chinese, a language widely spoken throughout Asia.

For example, the Sing Tao Daily, founded in 1938 in Hong Kong and owned by Sing Tao News, has grown into one of the largest Chinese-language media operating in the United States.

The paper’s website says that 85% of those who read Chinese newspapers in the San Francisco Bay Area read the Sing Tao Daily. The Eastern edition of the paper, distributed in New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Chicago, says it reaches 250,000 readers daily.24

The company also owns three radio stations in California.  It has offices in mainland China, Taiwan, Australia and Canada. The company’s U. S. offices are in various cities in California as well as Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia and New York.25

In 2008, the Boston edition of the paper prints 13,000 copies daily, New York 50,000 daily, Philadelphia 10,000 a day and Chicago 8,000, Jenny Wong of the newspaper’s advertising office told PEJ.26

Although she declined to provide specific 2007 numbers, she said the circulation experienced little change from 2007 to 2008.

World Journal, a Chinese-language newspaper based in Taiwan with U.S. headquarters in New York and Los Angeles, is a competitor of the Sing Tao Daily, and is published in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago and Texas, and it is distributed nationwide. The paper was founded in 1976 and although specific circulation numbers are not available, it calls itself the most widely read newspaper in North America in Chinese.27

Korean

The Korea Times and the Korea Daily are the two most widely read Korean newspapers in the U.S. Both are based in Korea but distribute widely in the United States.

The Korea Daily has editions in Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Hawaii, Seattle, Denver, Dallas and San Diego. The Korea Times has editions in New York, Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Chicago, Seattle, Atlanta, Texas and Hawaii.

Advertising revenue at the papers slipped in 2008, but not as much as it had when the Asian market in the 1990s, said Kenneth Kim, an editor for New America Media and former reporter for the Korea Times and Korea Daily. Kim said he was “optimistic about the ability of the Korean media to manage the impact of the economic downturn,” especially given its location outside the U.S.28

Though the data are limited, the U.S.-based Korean-language press also showed signs of stability in 2008.

Korean Journal, a Korean-language monthly based in Houston, has demonstrated a stable circulation over the past several years. It reported an audited circulation of 100,166 in June 2008. That was a slight over the same time a year earlier.29

Another publication that could be a real competitor in the Korean market is KoreAm Journal, an English-language magazine that increased subscriptions in 2008 after some trouble in August.

Owned by the Korea Times,30 KoreAm started out as a local paper in Gardenia, Calif., went national in 1997 and now reports a total print readership of 43,000 and averages 23,000 website hits per day.31 According to its website, KoreAm “embraces all generations of readers, including the mixed-race and adoptee communities,” and “has become the most widely circulated” independent English-language publication serving the Korean American community.32

One way that KoreAm helped itself in 2008 was by issuing an unusual, and apparently successful, appeal for support. Its August issue carried a letter from its publisher saying it needed more subscribers and advertisers to stay in business.33 “If this publication is something our community values, we want our readers to participate in the process more,” the publisher, James Ryu, said in an interview with New America Media in September 2008.34

After the plea, new subscriptions the next month increased almost four fold from an average of 20 subscriptions per month to 95.35

Vietnamese

Other native language Asian-American publications reported more difficulty.

The small Viet Tribune in San Jose, Calif., for example, suffered from a decline in restaurant and real estate advertising brought on by the 2008 economic downturn. Its publisher, Vivian Truong Gia, said in October that her real estate section had shrunk from 20 pages to 8, and that the company had lost 20% of its revenue. It cut staff and its newshole to compensate.36

Nguoi Viet, which calls itself the largest Vietnamese-language paper in the United States, reported that its circulation held steady in 2008, at 17,500. The paper is published in Westminster, Calif., and has an average daily readership of 30,000.37 The paper is mostly distributed in Southern California, but has more than 1,000 out-of-state subscribers.38

In an illustration of the sensitivities faced by the ethnic press, Nguoi Viet drew protests from the Vietnamese community in January 2008 after it published a photo of a foot spa painted in the colors of the flag of communist Vietnam.39

After a week of picketing outside the newspaper’s offices, it apologized for the photo, fired two top editors and issued refunds for that issue of the paper. But a small number of demonstrators still remained outside the offices, protesting through nearly the middle of the year. In April, an Orange County judge put restrictions on the demonstrators, saying their behavior was too disruptive, and the newspaper filed lawsuits against three of the protesters.40

One of the fired editors, , Hao Nhien Vu, went on to create his own blog to cover the news of the Vietnam community: “The Bolsavik: All Viet, all the time.”41

Filipino

Filipinos are the second largest segment of the Asian American population behind only Chinese-Americans.42 English is an official language in the Philippines, along with Filipino, a language based on Tagalog, and much of the Filipino-American media outlets are in English.

One example is Filipinas Magazine, a monthly news magazine for the Filipino community published in Daly City, Calif., which said it had also experienced a dropoff in its real-estate section, hurting revenues. It’s income from real estate advertising, a major source of income for the magazine, dropped 12%.   Partly as a result, the paper also had to cut its overseas staff, move to a smaller office and cut paper use.43

Asian Television

The diversity of languages that makes up the Asian-American community is especially difficult for television and radio, where programming is primarily in the native language, which leaves a handful of broadcasters serving narrow segments of the population. This is especially hard for television programmers, where the cost to entry into the business can be higher than it is in print, and room on cable systems is limited.

To address this, some stations have tried block programming. In these cases, the station broadcasts programs in a variety of languages in different blocks throughout the day.

It was a difficult year for Asian American television in 2008. One element in that difficult year, oddly, was the fact that one of the major stories of the year happened in Asia.

One of the largest Asian broadcasters, New Tang Dynasty Television, broadcasts in Chinese and had a high-profile run-in with the Chinese government before the Beijing Olympic Games.

New Tang Dynasty Television was started in 2001 with the goal of becoming the Chinese CNN. It had since grown into a satellite network that broadcasts Western-style news and entertainment 24 hours a day in Mandarin and Cantonese to Chinese communities in the United States.44

The New York-based NTDTV reported having correspondents in over 70 cities worldwide and was, before the Olympic Games, permitted to broadcast via satellite into China. It called itself the only station available to the Chinese citizens that was independent of the Chinese government.45

Seven weeks before the games started, however, the channel lost its satellite feed. It had not been restored as of the end of 2008. The broadcaster had been utilizing a satellite operated by Eutelstat, a private company founded by a consortium of European governments.46

Eutelstat blamed a “power generator subsystem anomaly,” but NTDTV said it had evidence that the cutoff was a response to pressure from the Chinese government. A man answering the phone at the Chinese embassy said the Chinese government had not issued an  statement on the satellite feed and declined to comment.

“The harm this interruption has caused to NTDTV and our audience must end. We will spare no effort to obtain a full accounting of the situation and to restore NTDTV’s open satellite broadcast over Asia as soon as possible,” said Zhong Lee, president of NTDTV.

The situation prompted the station to launch the Freedom Satellite for China plan that would raise funds for the station to buy its own satellite capabilities.47 In October 2008, 68 members of the U.S. House of Representatives also sent a letter to Eutelsat urging the company to restore the satellite service. This was followed by 477 members of the European Parliament signing a written declaration in support of New Tang Dynasty Television in January of 2009.

Following the declaration, Eutelsat released an official statement that said the outage was “irreversible and purely technical.”48

Before the dispute, NTDTV had expanded its coverage in the New York City area. The station struck an agreement to lease an hour of prime time from WMBC-TV 63, a station based in Newton, N.J.49

In May, the NTDTV announced that it would provide a mobile video portal that would deliver mobile content to iPhones and other smartphones on a subscription basis.50

The NTDTV dispute was not the only setback for Asian American television. Comcast pulled the plug in January 2008 on the three-year-old AZN Television, a pan-Asian channel initially described as a “network for Asian America.”  Comcast said it made the decision after it conducted “a review that included a study of the prospects for Asian American broadcast media by a leading management consulting company retained by the company.”

The review, Comcast said, included “a realistic consideration of the channel’s failure to obtain meaningful support from advertisers and non-Comcast cable operators.” 51

The Filipino Channel, the largest television station targeting Filipino Americans in the United States, is also a strong player in Asian American media.
Established in 1994, the channel combines content produced in the U.S. and the Philippines and is distributed by cable and satellite operators. It reports having more than 200,000 Filipino and Filipino American subscribers.52

Among its programs are Balitang America; Citizen Pinoy, a show focusing on immigration issues; Adobo Nation, a weekly talk show, and Pera Ko Pera Mo, a personal finance program.

Other Asian cable and satellite networks in the United States are the Vietnamese-language SBTN and the Chinese-language TVB. Another, TVK, aggregates programming from19 Korea-based networks and its own programs for Korean Americans in the U.S. 24 hours a day.

Radio

Radio offers another avenue for reaching new immigrants and first-generation citizens. It is particularly strong in the Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese communities and has networks like Little Saigon Radio Broadcasting.

Radio Korea International, popular in the Korean American community, calls itself “the nation’s sole foreign language promotional broadcast of Korea for the broadcast world.” The station broadcasts internationally and provides news programs on the politics, economy, society and culture of Korea, according to its website.

Houston has emerged as a center of South Asian American culture, as reflected on the radio dial. Little Saigon Radio, founded in 1993, broadcasts throughout California and in the Houston area. It says it aims to be “the most trusted voice in Vietnamese radio program in the U.S.”

A rival, Radio Saigon, is aimed at Vietnamese in Houston and calls itself the only full-time Asian station in Houston.53

Digital

Recognizing the high rates of Internet usage among Asian Americans, Asian media outlets have moved online aggressively.

Asians use the Internet at higher rates than any other ethnic group in the country, according to the 2007 Current Population Survey conducted by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration. About 76% of Asian American households use the Internet, according to the latest data available. That compares with 67% of white households, 45% of black households and 43% of Hispanic households.54

The media serving this population are trying to keep up. Most of the larger Asian-American newspapers improved their websites in the past year, adding new features. Many added content in English, reflective of the potential marketers see in second-generation Asians.

World Journal and the Sing Tao Daily have both created sophisticated websites. The World Journal offers an e-paper version of the print edition and has a section for English news on the website that offers different content from the Chinese-language homepage.55 Nguoi Viet offers readers the choice between Nguoi Viet in Vietnamese and Nguoi Viet 2 in English.

A few outlets have decided to forgo the print version of a newspaper and launch with a completely online publication. The China Digital Times, run by the journalism school at the University of California at Berkeley, did just that as far back as 2003. The website’s content is a mix of articles written by the mainstream press on China and blogs from contributors. The site calls itself a “collaborative weblog” and allows readers to participate by posting links, commenting on stories in discussion forums and sharing photos. According to the Digital Times website, it “aims to aggregate the most up-to-the-minute news and analysis about China from around the Web, while providing independent reporting, translations from Chinese cyberspace and perspectives from across the geographical, political and social spectrum.”56

Some smaller Asian American outlets have been reluctant to make the online move because of the costs and the difficulty of estimating potential revenue.

“A small newspaper can look at the print edition and know how much money they made from putting the print ad in the paper, but online it is more complicated,” said Raju Kotak of WowNow.com.57

USAsianWire.com expanded as potential competitor to the more traditional ethnic news outlets in 2008. The online wire service announced a strategic partnership with other ethnic news services and formed the Multicultural Newswire Alliance, which comprises Black PRWire, Hispanic PRWire and USAsianWire.58

USAsian Wire.com was established in 2006 by Leslie Yngojo-Bowes, formerly of Business Wire, as what it calls an online newswire service that “specializes in distributing news releases and multimedia content reaching Asian, South Asian and Pacific Islander media outlets and organizations.”59

Taking the lead of a practice common in many Asian countries, USAsian Wire partnered with firms like Dynasign and Jistar Media to install digital screens in supermarkets frequented by Asian Americans. The digital screens are placed at the checkout, meat and other counters where people have to wait and provide a mix of scrolling news/information print with advertising, much like a digital billboard.60

The screens offer ethnic outlets a “way to appeal to people who wouldn’t necessarily pick up a newspaper or read their news online,” according to Yngojo-Bowes. An Asian supermarket chain, H-Mart, planned to have 80% of its stores outfitted with the screens by the end of 2008.61 This method of reaching consumers and readers has been common in Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for years.

Footnotes

1. Asian American Studies Center at UCLA,  “2008 Statistical Portrait of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders.” http://www.aasc.ucla.edu/archives/census2008portal.htm

2. Jeffrey Passel and D’Vera Cohn,  “U.S. Population Projections: 2005-2050,” Pew Hispanic Center, February 11, 2008. http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/85.pdf

3. Reuters,  “Affluent Asian-American Segment Generates Opportunities as Crown Jewel of Multicultural Market,” October 8, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS210245+08-Oct-2008+MW20081008

4. Reuters,  “Affluent Asian-American Segment Generates Opportunities as Crown Jewel of Multicultural Market,” October 8, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS210245+08-Oct-2008+MW20081008

5. Magazine Publishers of America, Asian-American Market Profile, 2004.

6.Jeffrey Humphreys, “Asian-American Buying Power,” Georgia Trend magazine, September 2008. http://www.georgiatrend.com/state-of-the-economy/09_08_economics.shtml. The figure for non-Hispanic whites was 124% and 166% for African-Americans.

7.Magazine Publishers of America, Asian-American Market Profile, 2004.

8. Magazine Publishers of America, Asian-American Market Profile, 2004.

9.Asian American Journalists Association press release, “Study on Asian American Consumption Trends,” November 2, 2005. http://www.aaja.org/news/community/2005_11_04_1/

10. Bill Imada, “Four Myths About the Asian-American market,”  Big Tent Advertising Age Blog, October 31, 2007. http://adage.com/bigtent/post?article_id=121668

11. Phone interview with Raju Kotak, founder of WowNow.com, September 2008.

12.USAsianWire, “National Association of Asian Publishers Launched at NAA Marketing Conference,” March 13, 2008. http://www.usasianwire.com/release.php?id=1404747149

13.USAsianWire, “National Association of Asian Publishers Launched at NAA Marketing Conference,” March 13, 2008. http://www.usasianwire.com/release.php?id=1404747149

14. Phone interview with Josh Luck, Verified Audit Circulation field verification manager, December 2008

15. Jennifer Armor,  “Asian Americans Are Good for Advertisers So Why Aren’t Advertisers Listening?” USAianWire, February 7, 2008. http://www.usasianwire.com/release.php?id=443971727

16. Phone Interview with Raju Kotak, founder WowNow.com, September 2008

17. Ngoc Nguyen,“Loss of AsianWeek Increases Hole in Asian-American Coverage” New America Media, January 5, 2008. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=f775e75df8b5562c54d292ff4df1c1ef

*New America Media is a California-based association of ethnic news organizations founded by the nonprofit Pacific News Service in 1996. According to its website,  “NAM is dedicated to bringing the voices of the marginalized -ethnic minorities, immigrants, young people, elderly — into the national discourse.”

18. Verified Audit Circulation, AsianWeek Current Quarterly Submission (Publisher’s Statement), July-September 2008

19. Wendy Leung, “Asian American Ethnic Media Survives Through Tough Times,” September 29, 2008. http://www.asianweek.com/2008/09/29/asian-american-ethnic-media-survives-tough-times/

20. Interview with Nikki Cranor, December 3, 2008

21. Epoch Times Online, About Us. http://en.epochtimes.com/n2/about-us.html

22. Phone Interview Epoch Times, September 2008

23. “An Unexpected Shout of Dissent.” New York Times. April 21, 2006. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DE1DE153FF932A15757C0A9609C8B63&sec=&spon=&scp=2&sq=epoch%20times&st=cse

24. Sing Tao Daily Online.  http://www.nysingtao.com/advertise/index.html

25. Sing Tao Daily Online. http://www.singtaousa.com/media/heritage.html

26. Phone Interview with Jenny Wong, Sing Tao Daily, October 2008

27. World Journal Media Kit. 2008

28. Phone interview with Kenneth Kim, New America Media, September 2008

29. Audit Bureau of Circulations, publisher’s statement for the period ending June 30

30. Korea Times is a newspaper based in Korea that publishes in both English and Korean and circulates in 160 countries, including the U.S.

31. KoreAm Journal 2009-2010 Media Kit. http://www.koreamjournal.com/download/MediaKitKJ09-All.pdf

32. KoreAm Journal online, About Us. http://www.koreamjournal.com/main/about_us.php

33. Wendy Leung,  “Asian American Ethnic Media Survives Through Tough Times,” Asian Week, September 29, 2008

34.Ngoc Nguyen, “Ethnic Print Vulnerable During Bad Economy,” New America Media, October 2, 2008

*New America Media is a California-based association of ethnic news organizations founded by the nonprofit Pacific News Service in 1996. According to its website,  “NAM is dedicated to bringing the voices of the marginalized -ethnic minorities, immigrants, young people, elderly — into the national discourse.”

35. Wendy Leung,. “Asian American Ethnic Media Survives Through Tough Times,” Asian Week, September 29, 2008

36. Ngoc Nguyen, “Ethnic Print Media Vulnerable During Bad Economy,” New America Media, October 2, 2008

*New America Media is a California-based association of ethnic news organizations founded by the nonprofit Pacific News Service in 1996. According to its website,  “NAM is dedicated to bringing the voices of the marginalized -ethnic minorities, immigrants, young people, elderly — into the national discourse.”

37. Nguoi Viet Media Kit. http://nguoi-viet.com/2008_NV_Media_Kit.pdf

38. Nguoi Viet Media Kit. http://nguoi-viet.com/2008_NV_Media_Kit.pdf

39. My-Thuan Tran, “Judge Limits Protests at Vietnamese Newspaper,” Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2008. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/apr/09/local/me-protests9

40. My-Thuan Tran, “Judge Limits Protests at Vietnamese Newspaper,” Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2008. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/apr/09/local/me-protests9

41. Martin Wisckol. “Fired Nguoi Viet Editor Launches Little Saigon Blog,” Orange County Register Blog: Total Buzz, April 7, 2008. http://totalbuzz.freedomblogging.com/2008/04/07/fired-nguoi-viet-editor-launches-little-saigon-blog/3611/

42. Magazine Publishers of America, Asian-American Market Profile, 2004

43. Ngoc Nguyen, “Ethnic Print Vulnerable During Bad Economy, New America Media, October 2, 2008. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=d9cd25e6adfaf3608103b5f842a616f3

*New America Media is a California-based association of ethnic news organizations founded by the nonprofit Pacific News Service in 1996. According to its website,  “NAM is dedicated to bringing the voices of the marginalized -ethnic minorities, immigrants, young people, elderly — into the national discourse.”

44. Szabolcs Toth, “Chinese news network in US finds perils of facing Beijing,” Boston.com, August 24, 2003. http://www.boston.com/news/world/articles/2003/08/24/chinese_news_network_in_us_finds_perils_of_facing_beijing/

45. New Tang Dynasty Television Online, About NTDTV. http://english.ntdtv.com/?c=236

46. New Tang Dynasty TV,  press release, “Uncensored TV Service to China Shut Off,” June 23, 2008. http://english.ntdtv.com/data/press_room/NTD-Satellite-Interruption-Statement-06232008.pdf

47. New Tang Dynasty TV, press release, “NTDTV Launches ‘Freedom Satellite for China’ Plan. http://english.ntdtv.com/data/press_room/freedom_sat_platform_forPress_En09052008.pdf

48. Peter J. Brown. Tang Dynasty TV Takes on China. Asia Times Online. February 14, 2009. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/KB14Ad01.html

49. New Tang Dynasty TV, press release, “NTDTV Launches Major Coverage Expansion for Tri-State Area,” January 7, 2008. http://english.ntdtv.com/data/press_room/NTD_cable_slot_press_release_010708.pdf

50. New Tang Dynasty TV, press release, “New Tang Dynasty TV Launches Mobile Video Portal, Expands Its Distribution in North America,” May 19, 2008. http://english.ntdtv.com/data/press_room/New_Tang_Mobile_PR.pdf

51. Jeff Yang, “The AZend,” San Francisco Chronicle, January 29, 2008. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/2008/01/29/apop.DTL

52.ABS-CBN International website, About Us. http://www.abs-cbnglobal.com/Regions/USA/AboutUs/tabid/167/Default.aspx

53. Radio Saigon, Houston, coverage area. http://www.radiosaigonhouston.com/co_are.html

54. National Telecommunications Information Administration, Current Population Survey,. Households Using the Internet in and Outside the Home, by Selected Characteristics: Total Urban, Rural, Principal City 2007. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/reports/2008/Table_HouseholdInternet2007.pdf

55. World Journal Online

56. China Digital Times, About the China Digital Times. http://chinadigitaltimes.net/about/

57. Interview with Raju Kotak, October 23, 2008

58. USAsianWire, press release, March 13, 2007. http://www.usasianwire.com/news.html

59. Phone Interview with Leslie Yngojo-Bowes, founder, USAsian Wire, September, 2008

60. Phone Interview with Leslie Yngojo-Bowes, founder, USAsian Wire, September, 2008

61. Phone Interview with Leslie Yngojo-Bowes, founder, USAsian Wire, September, 2008