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Hispanic

Ethnic
By the Project For Excellence In Journalism
Hispanic

Overview

Hispanic media outlets in 2009 struggled with the sour economy and long-term shifts of language preferences.

For the 12 months ending June 2009, ad revenue for Spanish-language media fell by 6.3%, to $5.5 billion, according to Nielsen.1 The downturn was especially acute for Hispanic print outlets, some of which closed, cut staff or reduced their frequency to align expenses with revenues. And an effort to create a national paper with regional editions, Sea Latino, failed by year’s end.

On the positive side, the two major television broadcasters saw audience growth and only slight revenue declines. One of the newest media platforms, mobile, appears particularly well suited for this population. And the robust population growth that fueled Hispanic media for many years continued, providing hope for better years ahead. At 47.4 million (15.8% of the U.S. population) as of March 2009, Hispanics are the nation’s largest minority group.2 By 2050 projections call for Hispanics to account for 29% of the total U.S. population.3 (Click here for more information on Hispanic demographics, and here to read about the impact of the 2010 Census on Hispanic media)

Most of the growth is now from American-born Hispanics who are more likely to speak and read mainly in English.4 As of 2007, the most recent year for which data are available, a majority (60.2%) of Hispanic Americans were U.S.-born, according to the advertising industry magazine AdWeek, 5 and the percentage rises to 88% among Hispanic children.6

With that in mind, some Hispanic media outlets switched from Spanish-language to bilingual or even all English-language in 2009. This, in turn, put them in more direct competition with the mainstream media. And one English-language company took steps in 2009 to broaden its reach among Hispanics. In December, the Tribune Company announced Tribune Hispanic, an advertising initiative aimed to reach Hispanic consumers through print, Internet, television, mobile, digital signage, events and more. 7, 8

Print

During the 12-month period through June 2009, advertising revenue for local Hispanic newspapers fell 20.3% to $88.6 million. Ad revenue to national Hispanic magazines fell by 17.5% to $146.7 million.9, 10

Amid the trouble, publishers looked for ways to cut costs and broaden audience through new content-sharing and distribution systems.

That kind of shifting, which also helps Hispanic media become more mainstream and technologically advanced, was perhaps most boldly demonstrated by a series of moves announced late in the year by one of the biggest Hispanic print publishers, impreMedia, which is already in a content-sharing agreement with a large newspaper publisher, the McClatchy Company.11(To read more about impreMedia, and other companies in Hispanic media, go to Who Owns the News Media)

Among the moves announced by impreMedia:12

But one of the most ambitious print efforts over the last 18 months, Sea Latino, failed in its attempt to become what it called “the USA Today of the Nation’s Hispanics.” The weekly paper launched editions in Seattle, Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago, South Florida and New York in September 2008. In mid-December of that year it took a four-week hiatus from publishing, saying it would return in 2009. But that return never occurred. While a website for the newspaper was still accessible as of December 2009, the newest content was dated May 2009.

One barometer of the health of an ethnic media sector is the number of daily papers it can support. In 2008, the latest year for which data are available, the number of Hispanic dailies fell to 29, from 33 the year before and 38 in 2006.16

Although data for 2009 are not available yet, advertising revenue for daily newspapers dropped drastically between 2007 and 2008 to $427 million in 2008 from $637 million the year before.17

Hispanic Newspaper Ad Revenue
by Publication Category 2005-2008
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Kirk Whisler & Latino Print Network, Carlsbad, CA

The number of Spanish-language weeklies, though, grew in part due to some publications like Hoy Los Angeles, switching from daily to weekly.18 There were 424 weeklies in 2008, the most recent figure available, compared to 417 the year before.  The number of newspapers published less than weekly increased to 381 from 377.19 (Click here for more background on weeklies vs. dailies.)

Number of Hispanic Newspapers
by Publication Category 2005-2008
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Kirk Whisler & Latino Print Network, Carlsbad, CA

Dailies

Of the three biggest dailies, New York’s El Diario/La Prensa had fairly stable circulation while the other two experienced steep declines.

Circulation of Major Spanish-Language Dailies
For the 26-week period ending September 30, 2001-2009
Design Your Own Chart
Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations publishers’ statements

Some smaller daily newspapers, meanwhile, had increases in their circulation:

Weeklies

Circulation figures are harder to come by for weeklies, which often do not participate in independent audits. But there is anecdotal evidence that 2009 proved to be a challenging year for them, with steps taken to cut costs or broaden a paper’s reach.

ImpreMedia dominates the Spanish-language weekly newspaper landscape and hired a new news director in February 2010, Hilda García Villa.25

A handful of impreMedia papers are owned jointly with McClatchy. One of those, Vida en el Valle, serves Sacramento and Fresno, California, and switched in 2009 from half English/half Spanish to offering 80% of its content in English. The paper’s editor, Juan Esparza, said that the switch to majority-English was done for two reasons. First, the paper saved money by publishing a single version of an article in English, with a synopsis in Spanish at the end, rather than publishing each one twice. Also, the paper’s younger readers are proficient in English, he said.26 The paper reported an average weekly circulation of 157,163 in September 2008, the most recent figures available.27

Most impreMedia weeklies are still published only in Spanish. These include:

La Raza, founded in 1970, serves the Spanish-language market in Chicago and had a self-reported a weekly circulation of 152,154 for 2008, the most recent figure available.

El Mensajero, founded in 1987, serves the San Francisco Bay Area. ImpreMedia reported the paper had a circulation of 102,664 in 2008.

RUMBO Houston had a weekly circulation of 50,000 in 2009 according to impreMedia.

La Prensa, founded in 1981, has editions in Orlando, Daytona Beach and Melbourne, Fla., and publishes every Thursday in tabloid form. ImpreMedia reported that the newspaper had a weekly average distribution of 34,266 as of March 2009, citing Certified Audit of Circulations.28

Some of the other major Spanish-language weeklies have other owners.

The Atlanta-based Mundo Hispánico built off of its partnership with another Cox Enterprise-owned newspaper, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution. In March 2010, Mundo Hispánico began printing from the Journal-Constitution’s new printing presses. The Journal-Constitution was already delivering Mundo Hispánico to the Spanish-language paper’s 6,000 home subscribers.29

Qué Pasa, out of Winston Salem, N.C., reported an average net circulation of 67,605 in December 2008.30 Qué Pasa has editions in Greensboro, Charlotte and Raleigh, N.C. The newspaper also owns Qué Pasa radio, which it says is the only Spanish-language radio station in North Carolina with local news reports.31

El Tiempo Latino, a free newspaper in the Washington, D.C., region, is owned by the Washington Post. The newspaper said it circulated an average of 58,105 copies in 2007 and 2008.32

Television

If print suffered, Spanish-language television fared somewhat better. The medium over all experienced only slight declines in advertising revenue in 2009, much less severe than Spanish-language print outlets or much of the mainstream press. And the two biggest players, Univision and Telemundo increased their audience, in some cases now competing with the major English language networks.

The bulk of the ad revenue – about two-thirds – goes to Spanish-language network and cable stations. Just a third is directed at local stations.33

Spanish-language network and cable television generated an estimated $3.2 billion in ad revenue for the 12 months ending June 2009, a 2% drop from July 2008. For spot advertising, both local and national, the decline was more severe: a 13.2% drop in the 12-month period to $1.5 billion in June 2009.34 (Click here for a more detailed discussion of local TV economics.)

That relative strength is attracting more players to the market. Indeed, despite the economic recession, a new Spanish-language television network started in September 2009, when Liberman Broadcasting’s Estrella TV launched local stations throughout the U.S., including New York, San Francisco, Miami and Los Angeles. Estrella TV reports viewership on the rise with its Los Angeles station (KRCA-TV) increasing by 21% the number of viewers aged 18 –to 49 between 7 and 11 p.m., though the company did not release absolute numbers.35 With the February 2010 purchases of KWHD-53 in Denver and W40BY in Chicago, Liberman Broadcasting became the owner and operator of nine stations throughout the United States.36,37

The two largest Spanish-language networks, Univision and Telemundo, both increased their audiences in 2009.38 As a division of NBC Universal, Telemundo would be part of the pending merger of Comcast and NBC Universal.

Univision

Univision, the dominant Spanish-language TV network, again led all other Hispanic television networks in both revenue and audience in 2009, although revenue declined slightly.

The network reported a record 2008-09 television season, with an average total viewing audience of 3.9 million viewers, an 11% increase and the highest ever for the network.39

These gains place Univision as the fifth-most-watched network in prime time among all adults aged 18 –to 49 for the 200809 season.40

Univision returned to upfront week, the annual preseason gathering of networks and major advertisers, in 2010 after sitting it out in 2009. This was seen as an indication that the network is more confident about ad revenue for 2010.41

In some markets, Univision viewership outpaced that of local newscasts regardless of language. In Los Angeles, Houston, Dallas and Phoenix, Univision stations delivered the top rated late local news (11 p.m.) among all 18-to-49-year-olds.  Univision 34 in Los Angeles outperformed both its English and Spanish-language counterparts during the November 2009 sweeps to become the most watched late newscast in the country among adults 18 to 49, regardless of language.42

The network now features several nationally aired news programs as part of its brand:

Despite audience gains, the network still had revenue declines during the year, though hardly as much as many English-language broadcasters. Univision’s revenue declined 3% in 2009 to $1.97 billion.

TV revenues for Univision were up 1% to $1.59 billion. Univision’s radio stations, however, decreased in revenue 18% in 2009 to $338.7 million and its online revenue dipped 1% for the year to $41.2 million.44

These declines, though, may be significant given that Univision was saddled with a large debt following its 2008 acquisition by a group of private investors. It still owed $10.2 billion as of December 2009, which it must pay it back before 2015.45

The network in late 2009 announced several initiatives to increase revenue and audience, and said it was looking for ways to accommodate the growing number of English-speaking Hispanics. Kevin Conroy, the president of Univision Interactive Media, said the company was “actively looking at ways to attract and engage bilingual and English-dominant Hispanics, which may include English-language content and products.”46

This could signal a shift in strategy for Univision, which has tended to favor Spanish-language programming imported from Mexico. Among its initiatives:

In addition, Univision had changes in leadership and management structure. In a March 2010 press release, Univision announced it was elevating its focus on news operations and named Alina Falcón to the newly created president of news position.

In October 2009, César Conde became the president of Univision, replacing the longtime president, Ray Rodriguez. Conde previously worked in corporate development, sales and interactive services and headed its sister cable station, Galavisión. Conde also was integral to the launch of Al Punto.52

Telemundo

Telemundo had audience gains in 2009 as well and announced changes in its news programming.

The network averaged 640,000 weekly viewers (18 to 49 years old) through November 15, 2009, up 1.6% from the same point in 2008 (630,000 viewers), according to Broadcasting & Cable.

NBC Universal does not release separate financial data for Telemundo. But the financial research firm SNL Kagan projected ad revenue of $309 million in 2009 and $318 million, up 2.9%, in 2010.53

The sale of Telemundo (and the rest of General Electric’s NBC Universal) to Comcast is expected to have important implications for the competitive landscape.

Former NBC Universal chairman Bob Wright, now an adviser with Thomas H. Lee Capital Partners, told Broadcasting & Cable, “If I were Comcast I would be looking at Telemundo [as an asset]. Comcast is in a lot of markets where there is a Hispanic population, South Florida for instance.”

The Telemundo brand, he argued, could help Comcast sell its cable, Internet and other services to Hispanics.54

Even before the change in ownership, Telemundo announced plans to integrate its news programs at the end of 2009. Among the changes:

“All our shows have been in separate silos,” Telemundo’s president, Don Browne, said. “Now we’re breaking down the silos. We’re taking a more aggressive approach to the news that our viewers find relevant.”59

One effort that ended was a three-year experiment to overhaul its local newscasts.

The experiment began in 2006 when Telemundo downgraded some local station staffing in favor of a hub broadcast from Dallas that would provide national and international news tailored to 10 NBC-owned Telemundo stations throughout the United States. Facing criticism from the beginning, Telemundo brought the regionalized plan to an end in November 2009.60

In February 2010, Telemundo announced the release of an iPhone application, A La Mano, which provides Spanish-language news, weather and sports content.61

Other Television Outlets

CNN en Español is a 24-hour Spanish-language news station established in 1997 by the American news outlet. CNN en Español had an estimated 4.1 million viewers in 2009, according to financial research firm SNL Kagan, up 10.8% from 3.7 million viewers in 2008. The firm estimates that CNN en Español earned $11.7 million in profits in 2009, up 27% from $9.2 million in 2008.

V-Me, a U.S. Hispanic channel, was launched March 5, 2007. The channel is a public-private partnership between the Educational Broadcasting Corporation (the parent of the New York public television station WNET) and private investors.62 The channel is available free in several major markets through partnerships with PBS member stations and it is also carried on basic cable and on basic Hispanic packages of satellite providers. V-Me airs several current affairs programs, including the nightly opinion show Viva Voz con Jorge Gestoso, a program that focuses on the content of the New York Times, the prime-time news show V-me Noticias, the documentary series Wide Angle in Spanish, and several others.63

HITN, the Hispanic Information and Telecommunications Network, is a nonprofit television station established in 1983. It is distributed on cable and satellite and airs several daily public affairs programs. Its news shows include a daily Spanish-language call-in program (Diálogo de Costa a Costa), a weekly English-language Latino policy show (Destination Casa Blanca), a national daily newscast (HNN News), a Puerto Rican news show (TuTv Noticias), and several other news programs.64

Radio

Radio continues to be one of the most prevalent Spanish-language media platforms, with stations in nearly every part of the United States. By the most recent count (spring 2008), there were 1,041 Spanish-language stations, a growth of 19% from the 872 the year before.

In 2008, the most recent year for which data are available, Spanish news/talk stations attracted 1.5 million Hispanic listeners per week, down from 1.7 million in 2007. Even so, the number of Spanish-language news/talk stations grew to 93 in 2008 from 63 in 2007.

English-language news/talk stations accounted for 3.8% of the Hispanic audience in fall 2008, up from 2.5% in 2007.65

Ad revenue in 2009, though, fell slightly, although far less than the 21% decline seen in broadcast radio over all for the first three quarters of 2009.  Estimated ad revenue for the 12 months ending June 30, 2009, was $569 million, down 3% from the same period a year before, according to Nielsen.66

The dominant player in the Hispanic-American radio market is Univision. Its stations, which traditionally offer mostly music with very little news, rank No. 1 among all adults in eight markets, according to Arbitron:  Miami, San Antonio, San Diego, Phoenix, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, Fresno, Calif., and McAllen, Texas.67

On October 15, 2009, Univision radio gained a stronger radio signal in the New York market when it sold one station and bought another in a three-way $33 million transaction. It converted the new station to WXNY-FM 96.3, changing its format from classical music to rhythmic Spanish hits.68

Another Spanish-language radio distributor is the Spanish Broadcasting System which was threatened with having its stock de-listed by Nasdaq because it repeatedly closed below the $1 per share minimum required. In February 2010, Nasdaq granted Spanish Broadcasting System’s request for an extension to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement; the new deadline is June 7, 2010.69

Spanish Broadcasting System is the largest publicly traded Hispanic-controlled media company in the United States, according to its website. In addition to its operation of 21 radio stations, in 2010 the company expanded its satellite television station, Mega TV, to New York, and is now available in 11 markets.70 In February 2010, Mega TV announced a new weekly news show, Conversemos.71

Hispanic-owned radio stations are still relatively rare. While the number of commercial radio stations has grown, ownership by minorities of any ethnicity remained virtually flat from 2007 to 2009 at 815, or 7.24% of the nation’s commercial stations.72 Slightly more than a third of those broadcast in Spanish.73

One Latino-owned radio network is Radio Bilingüe, a California nonprofit. As of December 2009, its website said it was the only national distributor of Spanish-language programming in public radio. Much of the network’s funding comes from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, a U.S. agency, as well as local and federal governments and foundations.74

Radio Bilingüe airs Noticero Latino, a news program, and other shows. The network airs on stations throughout the United States.75 Radio Bilingüe in 2009 joined with the Corporation of Public Broadcasting to fund the L.A. Public Media Project, which aims to bring public radio to a diverse group of relatively young listeners.76 While the project initially focused on a Hispanic population, in December 2009, the founders decided to broaden its reach to a multiethnic audience of people from all backgrounds.77

Radio is facing the same shifts in language preference as other Hispanic media. Four in 10 Hispanics said they “mostly” listen to Spanish-language radio, according to New America Media’s 2009 ethnic media study; more than say this for newspaper or television. Still, over half, 53%, said they never listen to radio programming in their native language.78

As a result, some experts believe that Hispanic radio will evolve away from pure Spanish broadcasts. “Radio will continue to expand as bilingual or…Latino-themed English broadcast[s]” according to Félix Gutiérrez, a professor of journalism and American studies and ethnicity at the University of Southern California.79

Digital

Hispanics have lower rates of Internet usage than the general population, but have, in recent years, increased usage at a faster pace.80 From 2006 to 2008, Internet use among Hispanic adults rose 10 percentage points, from 54% to 64%. Among whites, the increase was less than half that, 4 percentage points, over the same two years.81

Usage among Hispanics grew more rapidly for those with less education and lower incomes. In 2006, only 31% of those who did not graduate from high school used the Internet; in 2008 it was 41%. Hispanics in households with annual incomes less than $30,000 had a growth of 17 percentage points in Internet usage from 2006 to 2008, from 39% to 56%.82 (For more information, read the Pew Hispanic study here.)

New Web ventures in 2009 included a Spanish-language social network, programs streaming online and an increased presence of Spanish-language Internet radio.

Univision’s website, Univision.com, continues to be the most-visited Spanish-language website among U.S. Hispanics. The site attracted 995,000 unique visits in November 2009, compared to 19,742,000 for CNN.com in the same month. Traffic to Univision.com grew through the year but was still lower than the 1.3 million recorded in November the year before, when the national elections were held.85

Much of the traffic comes not from news content but streamed television programs, particularly the popular telenovas. One such program, Vidas Cruzadas (Crossed Lives), attracted over 2 million streams in August 2009.86

Univision also has a Twitter feed for news, called newsunivision that updates Twitter users with Univision news headlines.

Cellphone Usage

Hispanics are second only to African Americans in mobile broadband usage, something that attracted the attention of at least one major Hispanic media company in 2009. Hispanic adults were more likely to live in a household with only a wireless telephone — at 28.2% compared to white adults (19.7%) and black adults (21.3%) based on estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009.87

Over half, 53%, of Hispanics said they have used a handheld device to go online, in comparison to 58% of African Americans and only 33% of non-Hispanic whites.

The high usage numbers for Hispanics may at least in part be a function of demographics. Young people are more likely than older to use their cellphones to access the Internet, and the Hispanic population has a lower median age than other ethnic groups.88

Additionally, cellphone usage is more common than landlines in many parts of the world, including Mexico and other Central and South American countries. According to the Hispanic Institute and Mobile Future, this gives many immigrants in the United States a propensity toward mobile use.89

Seeking to take advantage of high cellphone use among Hispanics, Univision, through its Univision Móvil system, provided streaming footage of the Latin Grammy awards ceremony to wireless users.90 The company also released LigaMax, a portal that provides news, statistics and mobile video from Mexican, U.S., European and Latin American soccer leagues.91

Stimulus Package and Access to Broadband

Several Hispanic organizations, including the National Association of Hispanic Journalists, joined in 2009 to seek increased access to broadband services for rural Hispanic Americans. The groups expressed support for the Obama administration’s policy goals of net neutrality, or ensuring that Internet providers treat all Web traffic equally.92

In a report on Hispanic broadband access, the Hispanic Institute and Mobile Future wrote that “expanding broadband connectivity is essential to current efforts to enhance our nation’s economy and quality of life through broadband and wireless-fueled innovation.”93


Footnotes

1. “Nielsen Ad Intelligence Spotlight on Multi-Cultural Advertising.” October 2009. Data from Q3 of 2008-Q2 of 2009.

2. “Characteristics of the U.S. Population, March 2009: By Race and Ethnicity.” Pew Hispanic Center. Based on tabulations of the March 2009 Current Population Survey. In e-mail from Mark Lopez.

3. U.S. Population Projections: 2005-2050.” Pew Hispanic Center. February 11, 2008.

4. Shirin Hakimzadeh and D’Vera Cohn. “English Usage Among Hispanics in the United States.” Pew Hispanic Center. November 29, 2007.

5. Noreen O’Leary, “The Hispanic Market Is Set to Soar,” AdWeek, November 2, 2009.

6. Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2007.

7. The Tribune Company’s Hoy Chicago, Hoy Los Angeles, el Sentinel Orlando and el Sentinel South Florida reach an estimated 1.7 million Hispanics weekly. (Phil Rosenthal, “Tribune Co. Launches Cross-Platform Sales Effort Targeting Growing U.S. Hispanic Population,” Tower Ticker: The Media Business in Chicago and Beyond, a Chicago Tribune Blog, December 7, 2009.)

8. Phil Rosenthal, “Tribune Co. Launches Cross-Platform Sales Effort Targeting Growing U.S. Hispanic Population,” Tower Ticker: The Media Business in Chicago and Beyond, a Chicago Tribune Blog, December 7, 2009.

9. Laurel Wentz, “Ad Spend in Spanish-Language Media Falls by 6.3%, Nielsen Says,” Advertising Age. October 29, 2009.

10. While about a third of all Hispanics say they mostly read newspapers and magazines in Spanish, almost as many prefer English, according to a 2009 study by the ethnic media association, New America Media. (New America Media, Ethnic Media Study 2009, Topline.)

11. A powerhouse in Hispanic media, impreMedia publishes daily and weekly papers throughout the country. It also publishes a bilingual monthly, Vista magazine that is distributed in its newspapers. Vista had an average circulation of 451,562 for the last six months of 2008, down almost 8% from 2007 (Audit Bureau of Circulations). The magazine reported a higher distribution of 900,000 for December 2009, but the numbers were not yet audited as of December 2009.

12. A founder, John Paton, stepped down as CEO of impreMedia in early 2010 to become the CEO of the newspaper publisher Journal Register.

13. “ImpreMedia and AOL Latino announce alliance for content exchange.” impreMedia press release. November 12, 2009.

14. “The Associated Press and impreMedia Team Up To Deliver impreMedia’s Industry-Leading Hispanic News Content over Mobile Devices via AP Mobile,” impreMedia Press Release, December 1, 2009.

15. “ImpreMedia to Tap Into Hyperlocal Blogs,” El Diario/La Prensa, December 2, 2009. Translated by New America Media. (Original)

16. Latino Print Network, The State of Hispanic Print 2008.

17. Latino Print Network, The State of Hispanic Print 2008.

18. Hoy Los Angeles, a free Spanish-language tabloid owned by Tribune Company, switched to a weekly in March 2009. As a daily it averaged 75,547circulation, according to the advertising firm Echo Media. Weekly figures were not available.

19. Latino Print Network. The State of Hispanic Print 2008.

20. Audit Bureau of Circulations.  La Opinión. 12 Month Audit Report.

21. Audit Bureau of Circulations.  El Diario/La Prensa. Newspaper Publisher’s Statement.

22. ImpreMedia Web site.

23. Audit Bureau of Circulations. El Nuevo Herald. Newspaper Publisher’s Statement.

24. Audit Bureau of Circulations. The Dallas Morning News. Publisher’s Statement.

25. “García Villa Named ImpreMedia News Director,” Media Moves, February 22, 2010.

26. Juan Esparza, interview with PEJ, January 26, 2010.

27. impreMedia Publications

28. impreMedia Publications

29. Jimmy Vega. Interview with PEJ. December 7, 2009.

30. Que Pasa Publication Audit Report. Circulation Verification Council.

31. Que Pasa Media

32. El Tiempo Latino

33. “Nielsen Ad Intelligence Spotlight on Multi-Cultural Advertising.” October 2009. Data from Q3 of 2008-Q2 of 2009.

34. “Nielsen Ad Intelligence Spotlight on Multi-Cultural Advertising.” October 2009.

35. “Estrella TV Touts November Sweeps Performance,” RBR.com, December 9, 2009.

36. Veronica Villafañe, “Liberman Buys Denver Station for $6.5 Million,” Media Moves, February 3, 2010.

37. Veronica Villafañe, “Estrella TV Expands to Chicago,” Media Moves, February 23, 2010.

38. Telemundo and Univision also own cable channels.

39. “Univision has its best broadcast season ever,” Univision Press Release, May 21, 2009

40. When looking at the more targeted 18-34 year age group, Univision does even better, beating out both ABC and CBS during prime time in the third quarter of 2009 (average audience of 956,000).  “Univision Announces 2009 Third Quarter Results,” Univision Press Release, November 3, 2009.

41. John Consoli, “Univision Jumps Back Into Upfront Market,” MediaWeek, January 24, 2010.

42. “Univision Maintains Programming Leadership During November Sweep,” Univision e-Release, November 25, 2009.

43. E-mail from Monica Talan, Univision, October 8, 2009.

44. Univision Communications Inc. press release, “Univision Announces 2009 Fourth Quarter and Full Year Results, February 25, 2010.

45. Laurel Wentz, “Banking on Univision: Paying Down the Debt,” Advertising Age, December 7, 2009.

46. Laura Martinez, “Q&A: Kevin Conroy, President, Univision Interactive Media,” Multichannel News, October 20, 2009.

47. Claire Atkinson, “Univision to Launch Hispanic Ad Network,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 30, 2009.

48. “YouTube Inks Deal With Univision (But Skips the Telenovelas),” Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2009.

49. “Univision Creates TV Production Company,” New York Times, December 7, 2009.

50. Laura Wides-Munoz, “Univision, Feds Team Up to Boost Hispanic Ed,” Washington Post, February 23, 2010.

51. Veronica Villafañe, “Univision Creates Telenovela Web Site,” Media Moves, February 24, 2010

52. David Adams, “César Conde: Univision’s Big Bet,” Poder, September 2009.

53. Claire Atkinson, “A Comcast-Backed Telemundo Could Grow Hispanic TV Marketplace,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 19, 2009.

54. Claire Atkinson, “A Comcast-Backed Telemundo Could Grow Hispanic TV Marketplace,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 19, 2009.

55. Marisa Guthrie, “Telemundo Announces News Initiative,” Broadcasting & Cable, December 14, 2009.

56. Glenn Garvin, “Pedro Sevec Leaves Telemundo,” Changing Channels, a Miami Herald Blog, December 14, 2009.

57. Marisa Guthrie, “Telemundo Announces News Initiative,” Broadcasting & Cable, December 14, 2009.

58. Glenn Garvin, “Pedro Sevec Leaves Telemundo,” Changing Channels, a Miami Herald Blog, December 14, 2009.

59. Glenn Garvin, “Pedro Sevec Leaves Telemundo,” Changing Channels, a Miami Herald Blog, December 14, 2009.

60. “Telemundo Reorganization Could Mean Job Losses,” Richard Prince’s Journal-isms: An Online Column, November 25, 2009.

61. Glen Dickson, “Telemundo Taps LSN Mobile for iPhone,” Broadcasting & Cable, February 23, 2010.

62. Investment groups include the Baeza Group and Syncom Funds, which specialize in media investments that reach underserved markets.

63. V-Me Website

64. HITN Website

65. Hispanic Radio Today 2009: How America Listens to Radio, Arbitron.

66. “Nielsen Ad Intelligence Spotlight on Multi-Cultural Advertising,” October 2009.

67. Univision Communications press release

68. “Univision Readies Launch of WXNY X96.3/New York,” Radio Online, October 14, 2009.

69. Spanish Broadcasting System press release, “Spanish Braodcasting System, Inc. Granted Continued Listing on Nasdaq,” February 16, 2010.

70. Laura Martinez, “Mega TV, WRNN Sign Affiliation Deal,” Multichannel News, February 4, 2010.

71. Spanish Broadcasting System press release, “Mega TV Launches New Weekly Show: ‘Conversemos,’” February 10, 2010.

72. Catherine J. K. Sandoval. “Minority Commercial Radio Ownership in 2009: FCC Licensing and Consolidation Policies, Entry Windows, and the Nexus Between Ownership, Diversity and Service in the Public Interest,” November 2009. .

73. At 35.7%, Spanish is the most common of the minority-oriented formats broadcast on minority-owned stations: Spanish, urban, urban news, Asian, ethnic and minority-oriented religious.

74. Radio Bilingue website

75. Radio Bilingue website

76. Max Benavidez, project director, LA Public Media, Interview with PEJ, December 2, 2009.

77. Max Benavidez, project director, LA Public Media, Interview with PEJ, December 8, 2009.

78. New America Media, Ethnic Media Study, 2009 Topline.

79. Félix Gutiérrez, Interview with PEJ, December 1, 2009.

80. “Hispanic Broadband Access: Making the Most of the Mobile, Connected Future,” the Hispanic Institute & Mobile Future, September 15, 2009.

81. Pew Hispanic Center, “Latinos Online, 2006-2008: Narrowing the Gap,” December 22, 2009.

82. Pew Hispanic Center, “Latinos Online, 2006-2008: Narrowing the Gap,” December 22, 2009.

83. “Newt Gingrich Launches Bilingual News Site,” Latino Perspectives, October 10, 2009.

84. “Univision Interactive Media and Flock Develop Spanish-Language Social Web Browser,” Trading Markets.com, October 31, 2009.

85. The Nielsen Company.

86. “ ‘Vidas Cruzada’ (Crossed Lives) Delivers Record-Breaking Video Streams on Univision.com,” Press Release.  21 Sept. 2009.

87. Stephen J. Blumberg and Julian V. Luke, “Wireless Substitution: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, January – June 2009,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twice yearly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics estimates telephone coverage for the U.S. population to determine potential bias in health surveys for those who use only cell phones or landlines.

88. Wireless Internet Use, Pew Internet & American Life Project, July 22, 2009.

89. “Hispanic Broadband Access: Making the Most of the Mobile, Connected Future,” the Hispanic Institute & Mobile Future, September 15, 2009.

90. Wireless Internet Use, Pew Internet & American Life Project, July 22, 2009.

91. Univision Communications press release

92. Christi Parsons, “Obama Stumps for Student Loan Plan, Hails New Web Rules,” LA Times, September 21, 2009.

93. “Hispanic Broadband Access: Making the Most of the Mobile, Connected Future,” the Hispanic Institute & Mobile Future, September 15, 2009.