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Bibliography

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ABC News App Now Available on Amazon’s Kindle Fire.” ABC News. July 24, 2012.

Aspire Network Launches, Earvin ‘Magic’ Johnson Aims to Inspire African-American Community.” The Huffington Post. June 28, 2012.

BET Networks Announces its Comprehensive Multiplatform Political Destination For the 2012 Elections Examining the Issues that Matter Most to the African-American Community.” BET press release. Aug. 27, 2012.

BET Networks Presents the First and Only Interview with Herman Cain, About Black America, in A Half-hour News Documentary.” BET press release. Dec. 5, 2011.

BET News Examines the Socially-Charged Case of Trayvon Martin in its Exclusive Special: ‘Shoot First: The Tragedy of Trayvon Martin’ Premiering Monday, March 26 at 7:30 p.m.” BET press release. March 23, 2012.

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BIA/Kelsey Forecasts U.S. Social Media Ad Revenues to Grow from $4.6B in 2012 to $9.2B in 2016.” BIA/Kelsey press release. Nov. 26, 2012.

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CNN Shakeup Continues: Kyra Phillips Moves to HLN, Ashleigh Banfield to Dayside.” The Huffington Post. June 26, 2012.

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Kantar Media Reports U.S. Advertising Expenditures Increased 7.1% in the Third Quarter of 2012.” Kantar Media. Dec. 17, 2012.

Lee Enterprises Reports Earnings for First Fiscal Quarter.” Lee Enterprises press release. Jan. 22, 2013.

Len Burnett Inks Deal to Leave Vibe Holdings LLC and Re-Purchase Uptown Magazine.” Target Market News. Nov. 27, 2012.

LIN TV 3Q Revenues Climb 36% to $98M.” TVNewsCheck, Nov. 8, 2012.

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McClatchy Co. Reports Fourth Quarter 2012 Earnings.” McClatchy press release. Feb. 7, 2013.

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Oprah’s Lance Armstrong Interview Ratings: 3.2 Million Tune in to OWN.” Huffington Post. Jan. 18, 2013.

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Radio One Raises Stake in Reach Media to 80% from 53%.” Yahoo Finance. Jan. 7, 2013.

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Sinclair 3Q Revenue Soars 49% to $226.4M.” TVNewsCheck, Nov. 1, 2012.

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Ariens, Chris. “Bloomberg TV Cuts 30 Staffers, Adds Digital Jobs.” TVNewser. March 22, 2012.

Ariens, Chris. “Margaret Brennan Joining CBS News.” TV Newser. June 4, 2012.

Ariens, Chris. “Yunji de Nies Leaves ABC News.” TV Newser. June 4, 2012.

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Batey, Eve. “Management: No Plans to Consolidate SF Weekly, Bay Guardian, Examiner.” SF Appeal. Jan. 9, 2013.

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Beaujon, Andrew. “Village Voice Editor Tony Ortega Leaves the Alt-Weekly.” Poynter. Sept. 15, 2012.

Beaujon, Andrew. “Washington City Paper Editor Mike Schaffer Leaves for the New Republic.” Poynter. June 14, 2012.

Bennett, Shea. “Incredibly, Twitter Doubled in Size in The U.S. In 2012, Says Study.” Mashable. Jan. 31, 2013.

Bercovici, Jeff. “Forget Savannah vs. Ann. Here’s Why ‘GMA’ is Beating ‘Today.’” Forbes. Sept. 18, 2012.

Bercovici, Jeff. “Gannett Building Paywalls Around All Its Papers Except USA Today.” Forbes. Feb. 22, 2012.

Bercovici, Jeff. “HuffPost Live Chief: We’re Doing Great, but We Don’t Know Yet How to Measure How Great.” Forbes. Sept. 25, 2012.

Bercovici, Jeff. “The Atlantic Will Experiment with Online Pay Models in 2013.” Forbes. Jan. 3, 2013.

Bercovici, Jeff. “Why Time Magazine Used Instagram to Cover Hurricane Sandy.” Forbes. Nov. 1, 2012.

Bergman, Cory. “Colorado TV station Uses Hashtag in Fire Coverage.” Lost Remote. June 29, 2012.

Bergman, Cory.” Wake Up to a TV Anchor with ABC’s Alarm Clock App.” Lost Remote. May 24, 2012.

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Berrier, Ralph Jr. Political Ads Brought Region’s TV Stations $27 Million. Roanoke Times. Nov. 25, 2012.

Best, Neil. “KISS AM Goodbye: ESPN Radio Moves to 98.7 FM on Monday.” Newsday. April 26, 2012.

BIA/Kelsey database and Pew Research Center analysis. Dec. 7, 2012.

Bibel, Sara. “ ’Good Morning America’ Wins the November Sweep for the First Time in Nearly Two Decades.” ABC News press release.

Biennial Media Consumption Survey 2012. Pew Research Center. Q. 13 Did you watch the news or a news program on television yesterday, or not?

Bilton, Nick. “Countering the Google Plus Image Problem.” New York Times. March 6, 2012.

Bilton, Nick. “Disruptions: As User Interaction on Facebook Drops, Sharing Comes at a Cost.” New York Times Blog. March 3, 2013.

Bishop, Lisa. “Broadcast Strategies: How Digital Can Drive Your Revenue in 2013”. NetNewsCheck webinar. Nov. 14, 2012.

Blodget, Henry. “For Whom the Bell Tolls? It Tolls for TV.” Business Insider. Oct. 19, 2012.

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Brown, Lisa.  “Lee Newspapers Will Soon Charge for Online Access.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch. March 21, 2012.

Burke, Ron. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Aug. 23, 2012.

Byers, Dylan. “NBC News Names Executive Online Editors.” Politico. Oct. 2, 2012.

Byers, Dylan. “NBC News to Launch NBCNews.com.” Politico. June 21, 2012.

Byers, Dylan. “What’s Wrong at CNN.” Politico. June 26, 2012.

Calderone, Michael. “Washington Post Video Channel to Launch Online.” Huffington Post. Jan. 2013.

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Carr, David. “Brash Chef and Big Bet for CNN.” The New York Times. June 3, 2012.

Carr, David. “Wondering How Far Magazines Must Fall.” The New York Times. Aug. 12, 2012.

Carter, Bill. “ ’NBC Nightly News’ Adds Three Million Viewers From Olympics.” The New York Times. Aug. 7, 2012.

Chozick, Amy and De La Merced, Michael J. “Time Warner Considers Spinning Off Some of Its Magazines.” The New York Times. Feb. 13, 2013.

Chozick, Amy. “Time Warner Ends Talks with Meredith and Will Spin Off Time. Inc. into Separate Company.” The New York Times. March 6, 2013.

Clear Channel Media Inc. press release. “CC Media Holdings, Inc., Reports Results for Third Quarter 2012.” Nov. 2, 2012.

Cohen, David. “CNN, Facebook Announce Several Initiatives for 2012 Presidential Election.” AllFacebook. July 9, 2012.

Colman, Price. “More Sellers than Buyers in Station Market.” TVNewsCheck. May 16, 2012.

ComScore data. Dec. 19, 2012.

comScore. “Majority of Tablet Users Watch Video on Their Device, 1 in Every 4 Viewers Pay to Watch.” June 8, 2012.

comScore. Email to Pew Research Center.

Coscarelli, Joe. “Village Voice Editor Tony Ortega Quits to Pursue Scientology Book.” New York Magazine. Sept. 14, 2012.

Couret, Jacques. “Bounce TV Signs on in Phoenix, Minneapolis and Orlando.” Atlanta Business Chronicle. Aug. 27, 2012.

Cromwell, Bill. “Outlook for 2013 Ad Spending: Not Rosy.” Medialife. Nov. 1, 2012.

Cropper, Carol Marie. “In Greenville Television Sites Lead Online.” NetNewsCheck. July 26, 2012.

Cropper, Carol Marie. “Stations Set Their Sights On Site Superiority.” TVNewsCheck. Fall 2012. [not online]

Cropper, Carol Marie. “TV Sites Are King in Greensboro Market.” NetNewsCheck. March 15, 2012.

Cumulus Media webpage. Local Radio. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012.

de Moraes, Lisa. “BET’s ‘Don’t Sleep!’ to Become Weekly Late-Night Show.” The Washington Post. Nov. 12, 2012.

de Moraes, Lisa. “David Gregory Reenlists for the Sunday Morning Talk Wars.” The Washington Post. Feb. 21, 2013.

de Moraes, Lisa. “NBC News Execs Deny David Gregory is Out at ‘Meet the Press.’” The Washington Post. July 5, 2012.

Del Rey, Jason. “Pandora’s New Data Not Turning Heads.” May 30, 2012.

Depp, Michael. “Alt Media Mine New Revenue Alternatives.” Net News Check. Jan. 29, 2013.

Depp, Michael. “Digital Challenges Rise After Daily’s Paywall.” NetNewsCheck. June 28, 2012.

Depp, Michael. “Kennedy: No Papers Getting It Right In Digital.” Net News Check

Depp, Michael. “WMUR Tops Field in Digital New Hampshire.” NetNewsCheck. Nov. 15, 2012.

Depp, Michael. “WRAL Doubles Down on Mobile with App.” NetNewsCheck. Oct. 23, 2012.

Dickson, Caitlin. “Media Reaction to Newsweek’s Obama ‘The First Gay President’ Cover.” The Daily Beast. May 14, 2012.

Diel, Stan. “Alternative weekly Black & White suspends publication, plans to re-launch after retooling.” Alabama Media Group. Jan. 11, 2013.

Dillet, Romain. “Pandora Beats, Q3 2013 Revenue Up 60% to $120M, Net Income of $2.1M; Q4 Forecast Much Lower than Expected.” TechCrunch. Dec. 4, 2012.

DiStadio, Christine. “How to Make Social Media a Revenue Stream.” TVNewsCheck. May 25, 2012.

Doctor, Ken.  “The Newsonomics of Aaron Kushner’s Virtuous Circle.” Nieman Journalism Lab.  Jan. 31, 2013.

Doctor, Ken. Interview with Pew Research Center.

Dozier, Erin. Notice of Ex Parte Communication in MB Docket No. 09-182, from National Association of Broadcasters. Dec. 4, 2012.

Eddleston, Sloan. Email to Pew Research Center. Jan. 21, 2013.

Edelsburg, Natan. “Exclusive: NBC News Launches ‘Dateline Chatline’ to Make Broadcast More Social.” Lost Remote. July 8, 2012.

Efrati, Amir. “Google Expected to Surpass Facebook in Display-Ad Sales.” Wall Street Journal. Sept. 20, 2012.

Eggerton, John. “MMTC: FCC Should Seek More Comment before Ownership Vote.” Multichannel News. Nov. 29, 2012.

Elfrink, Tim. “A Miami Clinic Supplies Drugs to Sports’ Biggest Names.” Miami New Times. Jan. 31, 2013.

Ellis, Justin. “As YouTube Renews Channels, Will Media Companies Make the Cut?” Nieman Journalism Lab. Dec. 12, 2012.

Email from the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press.

eMarketer. “US Ad Spending Forecast.” October 2012.

Erickson, Erick. “The Loyal Opposition.” RedState. Feb. 7, 2013.

Farhi, Paul. “Dilemma for D.C. Stations: So Many Political Ads, so Little Airtime.” Washington Post. Oct. 22, 2012.

Farhi, Paul. “Limbaugh sees heat over comments turn down to a simmer.” Washington Post. March 28, 2012.

Farhi, Paul. “WPFW-FM Will Undergo Radical Change to a More Mainstream Lineup of Programming.” The Washington Post. Nov. 30, 2012.

Feder, Robert. Email to the Pew Research Center. Nov. 27, 2012.

Fiegerman, Seth. “Why Are Mobile Ads So Cheap?” Mashable. Oct. 23, 2012.

Filloux, Frédéric. “Mobile’s Rude Awakening.” Monday Note. Dec. 16, 2012.

Fischer, Jonathan L. “The Airing of Grievances.” Washington City Paper. Dec. 14, 2012.

Flint, Joe. “CBS to Collect $1 Billion a Year in Distribution Fees by 2016.” Los Angeles Times. Sept. 11, 2012.

Folkenflik, David. “Some in GOP Criticize Fox for Failing its Audience.” NPR. November 9, 2012.

Foote, Neil. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Aug. 22, 2012.

Foster, Stella. “Million-Dollar Winner Comes to Chicago.” Chicago Sun-Times. Nov. 14, 2011.

Fottrell, Quentin. “Facebook Loses 1.4 million Active Users in U.S.” Wall Street Journal. Jan. 15, 2013.

Fourth quarter and full-year earnings reports of companies. Jan. and Feb. 2013.

Fowler, Erika Franklin. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Nov. 29, 2012.

Fratrik, Mark. “Broadcast Strategies: How Digital Can Drive Your Revenue in 2013.” NetNewsCheck webinar. Nov. 14, 2012.

Fratrik, Mark. “Is FCC’s Incentive Auction Smart Business?” TVNewsCheck. Sept. 28, 2012.

Fratrik, Mark. Email to the Pew Research Center. Jan. 14, 2013.

Friedman, Wayne. “Advertisers Race to Oprah’s Armstrong Show.” MediaDailyNews. Jan. 18, 2013.

Garron, Barry. “NewsHour Gives Party Conventions 18 Hours, Assigns Female Anchor Team.” Current. Aug. 27, 2012.

Gayomali, Chris. “Connecticut Massacre Suspect: How the Media IDed the Wrong Guy.” The Week. Dec. 14, 2012

Glenn Peoples. “SiriusXM CEO Karmazin Calls Internet Radio ‘Race to the Bottom’ on Earnings Call.” Billboard.com. Nov. 1, 2012.

Gorman, Bill. “Univision Broadcast Networks Are Only Ones Showing Ratings Growth in May Sweeps.” TV by the Numbers. May 24, 2012.

Greenberg, Dan. “How to Evolve ’Native Advertising’ From Buzzword to Media Category.” PandoDaily. Jan. 28, 2013.

Griffee, Susannah. “Fact-Checking the Newtown Shootings.” Kicker. Dec. 18, 2012.

Griffin, Justine. “New Times Broward-Palm Beach to move to Miami.” Sun Sentinel. June 20, 2012.

Ha, Anthony. “Facebook’s Mobile Ads Grow to More Than $300M-23 Percent of Total Ad Revenue.” TechCrunch. Jan. 30, 2013.

Ha, Anthony. “Village Voice Media Execs Acquire The Company’s Famed Alt Weeklies, Form New Holding Company.” Tech Crunch. Sept. 23, 2012.

Hagey, Keach. “CNN Feels Heat on Ratings.” The Wall Street Journal. May 2, 2012.

Harrington, Jeff. “Tampa Tribune Sold to Revolution Capital Group.” Tampa Bay Times. Oct. 8, 2012.

Haughney, Christine.  “New York Times Company Posts a Profit but Advertising Falls, Lowering Revenue.” The New York Times. Oct. 25, 2012.

Herrman, John. “Facebook Social Readers Are All Collapsing.” BuzzFeed. May 7, 2012.

Hinckley, David. “ ’CBS This Morning’ Exec Producer Says the Third-Place Morning Show Offers ‘Fresh Eyes.’” Daily News. Aug. 22, 2012.

Hinton, Takiea. Email to the Pew Research Center. Jan. 8, 2013.

Hirschhorn, Dan. “’Cord-Avoiders’ To Reduce Cable and Satellite TV Rolls in 2012, Analysts Say.” Ad Age. Nov. 28, 2011.

Howden, Lindsay M. and Meyer, Julie A. “Age and Sex Composition: 2010.” U.S. Census Bureau. May 2011.

Hughes, Lisa. Interview with Pew Research Center.

Ihejirika, Maudlyne. “Defender Cuts Editors, More Staff.” Chicago Sun-Times. Oct. 23, 2011.

The Economist Group. Interim Report 2012.

Ives, Nat. “Meredith Corp., Publisher of Ladies’ Home Journal, Cuts 80 Jobs.” Advertising Age. April 24, 2012.

Iwan, Christine. “Creative Loafing Founder Sells Company to Her Children.” AAN. July 6, 2000. And “More on Creative Loafing’s Bankruptcy Protection Filing.” AAN. Sept. 30, 2008.

James, Meg. “NBCUniversal Centralizes News Divisions Under Fili-Krushel.” Los Angeles Times. July 19, 2012.

Jeffries, Adrianne. “Who’s Afraid of a Little Live TV? Why Streaming Service Aereo Scares the Broadcast Industry.” The Verge. Nov. 13, 2012.

Jensen, Elizabeth. “CNBC Buys ‘Nightly Business Report’ From Atalaya.” The New York Times. Feb. 21, 2013.

Jensen, Elizabeth. “PBS Near a Decision on Adding a Weekend Edition of ‘NewsHour.’” The New York Times. March 3, 2013.

Jessell, Harry. “Second Screens Now a Necessity At Sinclair.” TVNewsCheck. Nov. 15, 2012.

Johnson, M. Alex. “Msnbc.com Becomes NBCNews.com.” NBCNews.com. July 16, 2012.

Johnson, Micah. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Nov. 5, 2012.

Kafka, Peter. “The New Yorker Lands on the iPhone, With Help From Lena Dunham and Jon Hamm.” AllThingsD. Aug. 7, 2012.

Kantor, Susan. Email to the Pew Research Center.  Oct. 30, 2012.

Kapos, Shia. “Johnson Publishing Will Move into New Digs on Michigan Avenue.” Crain’s Chicago Business. Jan. 6, 2012.

Kelly, Keith J. “Time Inc. Layoffs Hit Mastheads Hard.” New York Post. Jan. 30, 2012.

King, James. “The Voice Has a New Editor in Chief: Meet Will Bourne.” The Village Voice. Nov. 15, 2012.

King, Steve. ZenithOptimedia Worldwide forecast. Presentation at UBS media investment conference.  Dec. 3, 2012.

Kinsley, Michael. “In Conversation: Tina Brown.” New York Magazine. Nov. 18, 2012.

Kirchen, Rich. “Journal Buys Nashville TV Station for $215 Million.” The Business Journal. Sept. 4, 2012.

Knox, Merrill. “Media General Reports 42% Revenue Increase in Q3.” Media Bistro. Oct. 17, 2012.

Knox, Merrill. “More Than 90 Jobs to be Cut at Bloomberg TV Europe.” TVNewser Nov. 28, 2012.

Knox, Merrill. “WSB Teams Up with Beat the Traffic for iPhone App.” MediaBistro. Feb. 21, 2012.

Koblin, John. “Ebony Sees Traction Under Desirée Rogers.” WWD. Jan. 18, 2012.

Kondology, Amanda. “London Olympics on NBC is Most-Watched Television Event in U.S. History.” TV by the Numbers. Aug. 13, 2012.

Kondolojy, Amanda. “Tuesday Final Ratings: Final Broadcast Election Numbers.” TV by the Numbers. Nov. 8, 2012.

Kotok, Steven. Interview with Pew Research Center.

Lafayette, Jon. “After Political Windfall, TV Spending to Fall in ’13.” Broadcasting & Cable. Oct. 11, 2012.

Laudner, Adam and Adams, Russell. “Philadelphia Newspapers Sold Yet Again.” The Wall Street Journal. April 3, 2012.

Lazare, Lewis. “Chicago TV Stations Adding More Weekend Morning News Programs.” Chicago Business Journal. Oct. 10, 2012.

Lee, Edmund and McCracken, Jeffrey. “Tribune Said to Want to Sell All Newspapers as One Deal.” Bloomberg. March 4, 2013.

Lee, Edmund, et al. “Dish Said to Be in Talks With Viacom about Internet TV.” Bloomberg Businessweek. Sept. 27, 2012.

Lee, Edmund. “Daily Beast Considers Charging for Website.” Bloomberg. Dec. 6, 2012.

Lee, MJ and Byers, Dylan. “John King Show Cancelled by CNN.” Politico. June 13, 2012.

Lewis, Randy. “Internet Radio Fairness Act Debate Opens in Washington.” Los Angeles Times. Nov. 30, 2012

Leybovich, Ilya. “U.S. Auto Sales Hit 5-Year High in 2012.” ThomasNet.com. Jan. 10, 2013.

Li, Shan. “Smartphone and Tablet Owners Multitask While Watching TV, Survey Finds.” Los Angeles Times. Oct. 13, 2011.

Lieberman, David. “Aereo’s Victory Could Eventually Upend Retransmission Consent, Analysts Warn.” Deadline.com. July 12, 2012.

Lieberman, David. “Pat Fili-Krushel to Oversee NBCUniversal News Group.” Deadline. July 19, 2012.

Lowry, Brian. “ABC Dumbs Down News, Reaps Rewards.” Variety. Aug. 22, 2012.

Mahaney, Chip. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Nov. 20, 2012.

Maldonado, Jeff. “65% of Americans Will Use PC, Smartphone, Tablet While Watching the Presidential Debate.” Verizon. Oct. 2, 2012.

Malone, Michael. “Newport Sells 22 Stations to Nexstar, Sinclair, Cox for $1 Bil.” Broadcasting & Cable. July 19, 2012.

Malone, Michael. “Scripps Station Revenue Up 79%.” Broadcasting & Cable. Nov. 9, 2012.

Malone, Michael. “Best Part of 2013: A Step Closer to Election ’14.” Broadcasting & Cable. Jan. 7, 2013.

Malone, Michael. “Exclusive: Communications Corp of America Puts Stations on Block.” Broadcasting & Cable. Jan. 14, 2013.

Malone, Michael. “LIN Closes on $330 Million New Vision Deal.” Broadcasting & Cable. Oct. 15, 2012.

Malone, Michael. “Nexstar’s Sook Sees Major Broadcast Consolidation Continuing.” Broadcasting & Cable. Nov. 6, 2012.

Malone, Michael. “Sean ‘Diddy’ Combs Planning to Launch Music-Themed Cable Network.” Broadcasting & Cable. Jan. 23, 2012.

Maloney, Paul. “NPR Digital Services, eMarketer Report Big Gains for Mobile-Optimized Websites.” Radio and Internet Newsletter. Oct. 16, 2012.

Manafy, Michelle. “CNN and Time Launch 2012 Political Convention App.” minOnline. Aug. 23, 2012.

Marek, Lynne. “Johnson Publishing Adjusts Strategy on Jet Magazine.” Crain’s Chicago Business. Aug. 9, 2012.

Marshall, Sarah. “#DMS: 32% of WSJ traffic coming from mobile.” All Things Digital. Feb. 19, 2012.

Marszalek, Diana. “KENS Forging a Distinctive Online Voice.” TVNewsCheck. Nov. 20, 2012.

Marszalek, Diana. “More News Turns Out to Be Good News.” TVNewsCheck. Sept. 18, 2012.

Marszalek, Diana. “News Sharing: Fox Holds Firm, NBC Rethinks.” TVNewsCheck. Oct. 2, 2012.

Marszalek, Diana. “Status of Social Media Rising at TV Stations.” TVNewsCheck. April 24, 2012.

Martin, Jonathan. “Election Aftermath: GOP Soul-Searching: ‘Too Old, Too White, Too Male’?” Politico. Nov. 7, 2012.

Martin, Jonathan. “Seattle’s Tim Keck Forever Remains The Stranger.” The Seattle Times. July 24, 2011.

McCabe, Elizabeth. Email to the Pew Research Center. Nov. 12, 2012.

McCarthy, Alison. “US Ad Spending Forecast: Fall 2012 Update.” eMarketer. Oct. 2012.

McKenzie, Hamish. “YouTube Halts Funding for WSJ and Reuters Channels; Reuters Cuts Positions.” PandoDaily. Jan. 18, 2013.

Mello, John P. Jr., “iOS App Turns the Dyle on Mobile TV.” MacNewsWorld. Nov. 20, 2012.

Mermigas, Diane. Email to the Pew Research Center. Jan. 6, 2013.

Messmer, Jack. “Political Ad Market: from Feast to Famine.” TVNewsCheck. Oct. 31, 2012.

Messmer, Jack. “Super PACs Pay Up to 4X More for TV Spots.” TVNewsCheck. Oct. 10, 2012.

Messmer, Jack. “FCC Mulls How Spectrum Auction Will Work.” TVNewsCheck. Dec. 3, 2012.

Messmer, Jack. “Nexstar Still on the Hunt for Acquisitions.” TVNewsCheck. Nov. 6, 2012.

Michaels, Phillip. “iPhone, iPad Sales Up, Macs Fall as Apple Sees Record Sales.” Jan. 23, 2013.

Miner, Michael. “Wrapports buys the Reader.” Chicago Reader. May 23, 2012.

Miner, Michael. Interview with Pew Research Center. Jan. 22, 2012.

Molloy, Tim. “ ’GMA’ Weeklong Win Over ‘Today’ Confirmed; First Win in 16 Years.” The Wrap. April 19, 2012.

Monk, Dan. “Scripps Newspapers Adopting Paywalls.” Cincinnati Business Journal. Nov. 15, 2012.

Mook, Ben. “Slow Growth for HD Radio.” Current.org. Nov. 5, 2012.

Morabito, Andrea. “ABC Cancels ‘The Revolution’ Expands ‘Good Morning America’ to Afternoon.” Broadcasting & Cable. April 11, 2012.

Morey, Jed. “The Press is Going Monthly. Here’s Why.” JedMorey.com. Dec. 6, 2012.

Moroney, James. Dallas Morning News publisher and Newspaper Association of America Chairman. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Dec. 4, 2012.

Moses, Lucia. “ ‘The Week’ Snags ’Men’s Journal’ Publisher.” AdWeek. Jan. 18, 2012.

Moses, Lucia. “Time Cuts Back in 2013.” AdWeek. Jan. 10, 2013.

Nancy Loo on Facebook. Jan. 21, 2013.

Newspaper Association of America. Trends and Numbers.

Newspaper Association of America. Trends and Numbers. Fourth quarter projections by Rick Edmonds.

Newspaper Publisher’s Statement: New York Amsterdam News. Alliance for Audited Media. For six months ended Sept. 30, 2012.

Nicholson, Chris V. et al. “The New Al Jazeera: More ESPN, Less CNN.” Bloomberg Businessweek. September 27, 2012.

Nielsen press release. “Nielsen to Acquire Arbitron.” Dec. 18, 2012.

Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis. “Ten Years that Shook the Media World.”Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. October, 2012.

NPR press release. “NPR’s Car Talk to Move Into Syndication.” June 8, 2012.

NPR. “Ford Enables Voice Control of NPR App Delivering In-car On-demand Access to News, Programs and Stations.” Press release. Jan. 9, 2012.

O’Leary, Noreen. “Atmosphere Proximity Wins The Economist” AdWeek. Nov. 29, 2012.

Oliver, John J. (Jake) Jr. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Aug. 29, 2012.

Oxenford, David. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Dec. 3, 2012.

Pandora. “Company Overview.” Accessed Feb. 1, 2013.

Pankratz, Howard. “Denver Company Buying Village Voice Media Holdings and Westword.” Denver Post. Sept., 25, 2012.

Papper, Bob. “TV News Staffing Soars to 2nd Highest Level Ever with More Hiring Projected; Profitability Rises Again.” RTDNA.org. Retrieved Nov. 15, 2012.

Papper, Bob. “A Record Amount of TV News… Again.” RTDNA.org. Retrieved Nov. 15, 2012.

Papper, Bob. “TV News Business Isn’t Limited to Just TV Anymore.” RTNDA.org. Retrieved Nov. 15, 2012.

Papper, Bob. “Web Continues to Mature for TV, Radio Stations; Web Profitability Reaches All-Time High for TV.” RTDNA.org. Retrieved Nov. 15, 2012.

Papper, Bob. Email to the Pew Research Center. Jan. 15, 2013.

Papper, Bob. TV and Radio News Salaries Barely Edge Up. RTDNA.org. Retrieved Nov. 15, 2012.

PBS Research.

Peters, Jeremy W. “The News, in Bright Bits.” The New York Times. March 13, 2011.

Pew Internet & American Life Project. Trend Data (Adults).

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press email to Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism.

Pew Research Center Interview with Sree Sreenivasan.

Pew Research Center Interview with Zach Seward. Feb. 19, 2013.

Pew Research Center. “In Changing News Landscape, Even Television Is Vulnerable.” Sept. 27, 2012.

Pew Research Center. “One-in-Ten ‘Dual-Screened’ the Presidential Debate.” Oct. 11, 2012.

Pew Research Center. “The Demographics of Mobile News Habits.” Dec. 11, 2012.

Pew Research Center. “The Tablet Revolution.” Oct. 25, 2011.

Pew Research Center. “Trends in News Consumption: 1991-2012.” Sept. 27, 2012.

Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. “The State of Social Media Users.” Feb. 14, 2013.

Pittman, Mitch. “New Severe Weather Alert App from KSTP.” KSTP.com. May 3, 2012.

Pompeo, Joe. “Tina Brown Promotes Three at NewsBeast While Staff Awaits Word of Layoffs.” Capital New York. Dec. 6, 2012.

Poor, Jack. “Drum Roll: The Biggest Media Impact Maker on the 2012 Presidential Election Was… Local Market Broadcast Television. (Again!)” TVB. Retrieved Jan. 21, 2013.

Powell, Tracie. “How Some Alt-Weeklies are Innovating their Way Out of Crisis.”  Poynter. May 3, 2012.

Presentation at Columbia University Journalism School Media Weekend, Feb. 16, 2013.

Prince, Richard. “’Black Snob’ Joins Clutch; BlackVoices Gains Clicks.” Journal-isms. July 11, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “BET Scales Back T.J. Holmes Show.” Journal-isms. Nov. 12, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “Christina Norman Reassigned at Huffington Post.” Journal-isms. Aug. 6, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “Civic-Minded Jocks Out as KISS Folds into WBLS.” Journal-isms. April 30, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “Danielle Cadet, Jermaine Spradley Named to Top Roles.” Journal-isms. Nov. 16, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “Ebony, Hispanic Magazines Gain Amid Overall Losses.” Journal-isms. Jan. 14, 2013.

Prince, Richard. “Essence Hires Dawnie Walton as M.E. of Website.” Journal-isms. Dec. 30, 2011.

Prince, Richard. “George Curry Group Buys Heart & Soul.” Journal-isms. January 18, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “George Curry, Editor Step Down at Heart & Soul.” Journal-isms. Nov. 26, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “George Curry, Partners Seek to Own Women’s Magazine.” Journal-isms. Dec. 14, 2011.

Prince, Richard. “J-Students Say Author-Professor is AWOL.” Journal-isms. Dec. 14, 2011.

Prince, Richard. “New Black Networks Push Back Launch Dates.” Journal-isms. June 18, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “No Date for Return of T.J. Holmes’ ‘Don’t Sleep.’” Journal-isms. Jan. 29, 2013.

Prince, Richard. “Pair Buys Back Magazine from Magic Johnson Firm.” Journal-isms. Nov. 28, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “Soul of the South Releases Promotional Video.” Journal-isms. June 8, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “Terry Glover, Ebony Managing Editor, Dies at 57.” Journal-isms. Dec. 24, 2012.

Prince, Richard. “Thomas-Lester, El-Bashir Leaving Washington Post.” Journal-isms. May 30, 2012.

Public Radio International press release. “Public Radio International Acquired by Boston Public Broadcaster WGBH.” July 26, 2012.

Public Radio International provided Pew Research Center with internal data.

Puzzanghera, Jim. “FCC Appears Likely to Ease Media-Ownership Rules.” Los Angeles Times. Nov. 6, 2012.

IAC. Quarterly Earnings.

Quilligan, Aidan. “HTML5 vs. Native Mobile Apps: Myths and Misconceptions.” Forbes. Jan. 23, 2013.

Quintano, Anthony. Presentation at Columbia University Journalism School Media Weekend. Feb. 16, 2013.

Radio Advertising Bureau. “Radio Records 3rd Straight Year of Upward Momentum.” Feb. 15, 2013.

Rehm, Dana Davis, Senior Vice President NPR Marketing, Communications and External Relations Division. Email to Pew Research Center. Jan. 14, 2013.

Reid, Joy-Ann. “Black Media Groups Confront the FCC on the ‘Demise of Black Radio.” theGrio. June 25, 2012.

Report On Ownership Of Commercial Broadcast Stations. Federal Communications Commission. Nov. 14, 2012.

Reza, James P. “Go: Where to Go, What to do & Why.” Las Vegas Mercury. March 17, 2005. And Zurowski, Cory. “Advocate Chain Bought by a Daily.” AAN. April 15, 1999. And Iwan, Christine.

Roberts, Jeff John. “New York Times Posts Ho-Hum Numbers, Slow Digital Growth.” paidContent. Feb. 7, 2013.

Roberts, Jeff John. “Pay TV Will Shrink for First Time in History, Study Says Cable Watching Peaked in 2011.” Paid Content. Jan. 11, 2013.

Roberts, Jeff John. “Time Warner CEO: Cord Cutters Not an Issue, “Cord Nevers” Might Be.” Paid Content. Nov. 16, 2012.

Rose, Kevin. “Foundation Video: Tom Conrad, CTO of Pandora on Reinventing Radio.” TechCrunch. Nov. 5, 2012.

Rosenstiel, Tom. Executive director, American Press Institute. Interview with the Pew Research Center. March 6, 2013.

Rosenthal, Phil. “Chicago Reader to Unveil Alternative Weekly’s New Design.” Chicago Tribune. April 27, 2012.

Routly, Paula. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Feb. 2, 2013.

Saba, Jennifer and Berkowitz, Ben.  “Warren Buffett to Buy Media General Newspapers.” Reuters.  May 17, 2012.

Sasso, Brendan. “Local Television Stations in Swing-States Cash In on Deluge of Political Ads.” The Hill. Oct. 28, 2012.

Saunders, Cherie. “T.J. Holmes on New BET Gig ‘Don’t Sleep’ and Why He Left CNN.” Lee Bailey’s eurweb. Aug. 23, 2012.

Schmidt, Michael S., and Eder, Steve. “Newspaper Wrestles with M.L.B.’s Request for Documents.”New York Times. Feb. 8, 2013.

Schudson, Michael and Fink, Katherine. “Sounds about right: Talking up talk radio.” Columbia Journalism Review. Aug. 7, 2012.

Sefton, Dru. “Lehrer Hands Off Anchor Role to Reporting Team.” Current. May 14, 2012.

Seltzer, Louisa Ada. “Say Hello to ‘Good Afternoon America.’” Media Life Magazine. July 9, 2012.

Sesno, Frank. Email to the Pew Research Center. Feb. 1, 2013.

Shackelford, Tiffany. Interview with Pew Research Center. Feb. 2, 2013.

Sherman, Alex. “Sirius XM’s Karmazin Exits as Malone’s Liberty Takes Over.” Bloomberg. Oct. 24, 2012.

SiriusXM. “SiriusXM Adds 2 Million Net Subscribers in 2012; Issues 2013 Guidance.” Press Release. Jan. 9, 2013.

Sisario, Ben. “Arbitron Agrees to Improve How It Counts Minority Radio Listeners.” New York Times. March 27, 2012.

Sisario, Ben. “Cumulus, a Growing Radio Power, Sells 55 Scattered Stations.” New York Times. April 30, 2012.

Sisario, Ben. “So Far, Clear Channel’s Digital Strategy Is Breaking Even.” New York Times. Nov. 2, 2012.

Sjoerdsma, Don. “Another Round of Layoffs for the Chicago Defender, Another Pub in Need of Web Strategy.” Digiwatchdog. Oct. 25, 2011.

Smith, Aaron. “The Rise of the ‘Connected Viewer.’ ” Pew Research Center. July 17, 2012.

Smith, Eric. “LIN Sees Digital Media As Key to Its Future.” TVNewsCheck. Dec. 4, 2012.

SNL Kagan. OWN: Oprah Winfrey Network Economics.

SNL Kagan. “Economics of Basic Cable Networks: 2011 Edition.”

Sonderman, Jeff. “NBC Closes Hyperlocal, Data-Driven Publishing Pioneer EveryBlock.” Poynter. Feb. 7, 2013.

Sonderman, Jeff. “The Journalistic Pros & Cons of Twitter’s New Real-Time Video Tool.” Poynter. Jan. 24, 2013.

Soul of the South website.

Standage, Tom. “I Am Tom Standage, Digital Editor at The Economist.” Reddit. Jan. 10, 2013.

Stelter, Brian. “A Low-Key Transition for ‘Today’ Hosts.” The New York Times. June 28, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “A struggling CNN Worldwide Is Said to Be Drawn to Jeffrey Zucker.” The New York Times. Nov. 27, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “Erica Hill, Formerly of CBS’s Morning Show, to Join ‘Weekend Today.’” The New York Times. Nov. 1, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “Fox News Extends Contract of Brett Baier, Political News Anchor.” The New York Times. May 8, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “Months of Transition Ahead for NBC News Online.” The New York Times. July 17, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “NBC News Names New ‘Rock Center’ Producer.” The New York Times. Oct. 9, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “NBC Peppered by Online Critics in Shuffle of Hosts.” The New York Times. Nov. 4, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “New Down in Morning Television: ‘GMA’ Bests ‘Today’ in September Ratings Race.” The New York Times. Oct. 4, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “Start-Up Puts Streaming TV on Campus.” The New York Times. Jan. 28, 2013.
Stelter, Brian. “The Anti-Fox Gains Ground.” The New York Times. Nov. 11, 2012.
Stelter, Brian. “Time Warner Cable Says It Will Keep ‘Open Mind’ on Reinstating Al Jazeera.” The New York Times. Jan. 3, 2013.
The Master Character Narratives in Campaign 2012.” Pew Research Center. Aug. 23, 2012.
Stewart, Christopher S. and Camo-Flores, Arian. “Univision, ABC to Start News Channel—in English.” The Wall Street Journal. May 7, 2012.
Weprin, Alex. “Mark Whitaker Leaving CNN.” TVNewser. Jan. 29, 2013.
Weprin, Alex. “This is Where CNN Makes Its Money.” TVNewser. May 27, 2010.
Winning the Media Campaign 2012.” Pew Research Center. Nov. 2, 2012.

Stelter, Brian. “Willie Geist to Co-Host Third Hour of ‘Today.’” The New York Times. Sept. 24, 2012.

Stengel, Richard. Interview with Pew Research Center.

Stern, Mike. “Layoffs Hit Major-Market Clear Channel Stations.” Billboard.biz. Dec. 7, 2012.

Stewart, Christopher S. “Oprah Struggles to Build Her Network.” The Wall Street Journal. May 6, 2012.

Stilson, Janet. “2013 Spot TV: Total Down 7.8%, Core Up 4%.” TVNewsCheck. Sept. 12, 2012.

Strategy Analytics. “Android Captures 22 Percent of Global Tablet Shipments in Q4 2011.” Jan. 2011.

Strategy Analytics. “Android Captures 41 Percent Share of Global Tablet Shipments in Q3 2012.” Oct. 25, 2012.

Study: Newspapers Dominate Local Web. NetNewsCheck. April 10, 2012.

Talkers. “The Top Talk Radio Audiences.”Accessed on Oct. 2, 2012.

Tatum, Elinor. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Aug. 28, 2012.

Tenore, Mallary Jean. “5 Ways Journalists Are Using Pinterest.” Poynter. Dec. 10, 2012.

Tenore, Mallary Jean. “How ABC News Built a Top Social Media Presence With a Small Dedicated Team.” Poynter. Jan. 24, 2012.

Terdiman, Daniel. “Watch as Vine Becomes the Next Great News-Gathering Tool.” CNET. Feb. 5, 2013.

The Association of Magazine Media.

The Diane Rehm Show. Interview with Gary Knell. NPR. June 7, 2012.

Thompson, Robert. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Jan. 5, 2012.

Trefis. “Pandora’s Value Could Double If the Internet Radio Fairness Act Passes.” Oct. 9, 2012.

Trend Data-Device Ownership. Pew Research Center. Dec. 2012.

Tsukayama, Hayley. “FTC Releases Final Privacy Report, Says ‘Do Not Track’ Mechanism May Be Available by End of Year.” Washington Post. March 26, 2012.

Umstead, R. Thomas. “Broadcasters in Black: Why Black-Targeted TV Channels Are Forgoing Cable for Multicast.” Multichannel News. Feb. 13, 2012.

Umstead, R. Thomas. “TV One CEO Lucas to Leave Company.” Multichannel News. Oct. 22, 2012.

van der Pool, Lisa. “Stuff Magazine folds; Boston Phoenix to Relaunch as a Glossy.” Boston Business Journal. Aug. 1, 2012.

Vega, Tanzina.  “Times Co. Agrees to Sell Regional Newspaper Group.” The New York Times. Dec. 27, 2011.

Veronis Suhler Stevenson Communications Industry Forecast, 26th Edition, 2012-2016.

Villarosa, Curt. “ABC News-Yahoo! News Live, Digital Coverage Served Nearly 10 Million Live Video Streams on Election Night 2012.” ABC News press release. Nov. 9, 2012.

Warzel, Charlie. “The Real Problem with The Atlantic’s Sponsored Post.” AdWeek. Jan. 15, 2013.

Washington Watch With Roland Martin website.

Weber, Harrison. “Spotify Announces 5M+ Paid Subscribers Globally, 1M Paid in US, 20M Total Active Users, 1B Playlists.” thenextweb.org. Dec. 6, 2012.

Wells, Carlie Kollath. “Times-Picayune Publisher: ‘This Is Chapter Two.’” Poynter. Feb. 19, 2013.

Weprin, Alex. “’60 Minutes Vet Michael Radutzky Named EP of Creative Development at CBS News.” TV Newswer. Oct. 8, 2012.

Weprin, Alex. “ABC News Correspondent Sharyn Alfonsi Joining ’60 Minutes Sports.’” TV Newser. Jan. 14, 2013.

Weprin, Alex. “ABC News Launching ‘GMA Live’ Web Show.” TV Newser. Dec. 6, 2012.

Wernecke, John. “Central Ohio’s The Other Paper Goes Dark.” The Lantern. Jan. 31, 2013.

Whiten, Jon. “Creditor Gains Control of Creative Loafing.” AAN. Aug. 25, 2009.

Wiles, Russ. “The Arizona Republic Changes Access to Content.” The Republic. Aug. 12, 2012.

Wilson, Clint C. Interview with the Pew Research Center. Aug. 16, 2012.

Wolford, Josh. “Foursquare Partners with Voice Media Group for More Local Data.” WebProNews. Jan. 22, 2013.

Wyatt, Edward. “F.T.C. Suggests Privacy Guidelines for Mobile Apps.” New York Times. Feb. 1, 2013.

Wyatt, Edward. “FCC Takes On Cross-Ownership.” New York Times. Nov. 14, 2012.

Yager, Julia, Vice President of Brand Management and Marketing Strategy, Public Radio International. Email with Pew Research Center. Nov. 29, 2012.

Yarow, Jay. “The iPad Mini Is Destroying the Normal Sized iPad In Sales.” Dec. 17, 2012.

Zaragoza, Jason. “Baltimore City Paper Editor Lee Gardner Departs.” AAN. March 29, 2012.  

Zaragoza, Jason. “Chicago Reader Goes Glossy in Redesign.” AAN. April 27, 2012.

Zaragoza, Jason. “Creative Loafing Atlanta Editor Eric Celeste Signs Off.” AAN. Oct. 10, 2012.

Zaragoza, Jason. “Creative Loafing Sarasota Sold, Will Print Final Issue.” AAN. Dec. 15, 2010.

Zaragoza, Jason. “Portico Sells Columbia Free Times.” AAN. Dec. 20, 2012.

Zaragoza, Jason. “Seattle Weekly and SF Weekly Sold in Separate Transactions.” AAN. Jan. 9, 2013.

Zaragoza, Jason. “Seattle Weekly Editor Mike Seely Stepping Down.” AAN.” Jan. 16, 2013.

Zaragoza, Jason. “SouthComm Acquires Washington City Paper and Creative Loafing Atlanta.” AAN. July 3, 2012.

Zaragoza, Jason. “Steve Schewel Announces Sale of Independent Weekly.” AAN. Aug. 2

Zhu, Katie. “How to build a news app that never goes down and costs you practically nothing.” NPR News Apps. Feb. 14, 2012.